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Table 4 Summary of tests performed

From: To be active through indoor-climbing: an exploratory feasibility study in a group of children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children

  CPpre; post CP pre → post TDpre;post TD pre → post
Climbing performance
 Route fractiona 0.6(0.23)- > 0.89(0.25)(N = 11) Z = 4.77, p = 3.7.10−6*** 0.74(0.19)- > 0.94(0.13)(N = 4) Z = 1.81p = 0.127
 Speeda (m/min) 2.2(0.9)- > 2.9(1.0)(N = 11) Z = 1.43, p = 0.28 3.9(1.3)- > 5.6(2.0)(N = 4) Z = 2.86, p = 0.0084**
 Errorsa (#) (Hands / Feet) 2.6(0–9)/4.6(0–8)- > 7.4(0–14)/8.5(0–22)(N = 11) Z = 3.299, p = 0.0019** / Z = 2.20, p = 0.054o 0.25(0–4/0.5(0–3)- > 0.0(0)/0.0(0)(N = 4) Z = −0.043, p = 0.999 / Z = −0.09, p = 0.995
Functional tests
 Sit-to-stand (#) 20.2(4.6)- > 23.5(5.8)(N = 11) Z = 3.072, p = 0.0083** 29.0(4.5)- > 30.7(4.5)(N = 6) Z = 1.044, p = 0.723
 Romberg (open / closed) 613(550)- > 504(445)(N = 11) Z = −1.35, p = 0.509 / z = −0.467, p = 0.979 408(119)- > 754(553)(N = 6) Z = 0.295, p = 0.996 / Z = 1.917, p = 0.191
Physiological tests
 Hand strength (least / most) 158(58)/114(55)->
167(51)/128(60)(N = 11)
Z = 1.067, p = 0.708 / Z = 1.715, p = 0.283 216(82)/195(68)->
227(69)/201(58)(N = 6)
Z = 0.745, p = 0.895 / Z = 0.208, p = 0.999
 Pinch strength (least / most) 34.8(6.3)/29.4(8.7)->
37.5(7.0)/32.2(8.3)(N = 11)
Z = 1.165, p = 0.639 / Z = 1.009, p = 0.746 43.1(12.0)/40.9(12.2)->
47.3(14.9)/43.1(14.7)(N = 6)
Z = 1.263, p = 0.569 / Z = 0.441, p = 0.983
 RFD 0–30 ms (least / most) 59.2(58.6)/50.6(64.4)->
79.6(68.6)/54.5(68.6)(N = 11)
Z = 1.797 p = 0.242 / Z = 0.714,p = 0.908 69.3(49.0)/41.6(13.3)->
72.6(29.6)/54.2(25.4)(N = 6)
Z = 0.003, p = 1.0 / Z = 1.493, p = 0.412
 RFD 0–50 ms (least / most) 79.0(63.7)/80.0(79.4)->
109.1(76.6)/90.6(84.8)(N = 11)
Z = 2.317, p = 0.0752o / Z = 1.045, p = 0.723 99.7(66.4)/72.1(28.0)->
113.6(45.6)/79.6(29.3)(N = 6)
Z = 0.584, p = 0.953 / Z = 0.269, p = 0.997
 RFD 0–100 ms (least / most) 110.9(53.1)/109.5(78.5)->
154.4(56.5)/123.3(76.8)(N = 11)
Z = 2.939, p = 0.0174* / Z = 0.872, p = 0.830 147.5(87.6)/132.3(57.9)->
171.6(70.9)/133.4(47.5)(N = 6)
Z = 0.989, p = 0.759 / Z = −0.208, p = 0.999
 RFD 0–200 ms (least / most) 105.6(36.4)/91.9(45.4)->
133.9(18.7)-101.4(40.5)(N = 11)
Z = 2.309, p = 0.0768o / Z = 0.733, p = 0.900 133.2(53.9)/123.4(54.6)->
145.4(60.3)/135.6(49.1)(N = 6)
Z = 0.595, p = 0.9498 / Z = 0.527, p = 0.967
Coherence
 Finger pinch (FDI-APB) -1.73(0.84)- > −0.89(0.91)(N = 10- > 11) Z = 2.81, p = 0.0184* −1.58(0.63)- > −1.49(0.83)(N = 6) Z = 0.239, p = 0.993
 Ankle Dorsiflexion (TA-TA) -0.96(0.88)- > −0.57(0.98)(N = 11) Z = 1.951, p = 0.0994o −1.10(0.45)- > −0.91(0.82)(N = 6) Z = 0.644, p = 0.7964
Ankle joint
 Stiffnessb 4.57(1.86) - > 4.08(1.82)(N = 11) Z = −1.002, p = 0.533 5.05(1.80)- > 5.17(1.18)(N = 5) Z = 0.379, p = 0.913
 ROMb 62.5(12.0) - > 67.98(7.76) (N = 11) Z = 2.764, p = 0.0114* 63.12(6.62)- > 66.16(5.16)(N = 5) Z = 1.019, p = 0.5214
 Strengthc 25.9(9.5)- > 30.2(12.0)(N = 11) Z = 1.387, p = 0.304 45.9(17.5)- > 40.7(13.8)(N = 6) Z = −1.476, p = 0.260
Cognitive tests
 Detectiond 83.3(10.9)- > 83.1(10.0)(N = 11) z = −0.048, p = 1.0 98.3(8.5)- > 95.7(7.3)(N = 6) Z = −0.648, p = 0.933
 Identificationd 87.4(8.0)- > 87.5(9.6)(N = 11) Z = 0.032, p = 1.0 94,2(6.3)- > 95.3(6.7)(N = 6) Z = 0.345, p = 0.993
 1-back (speed/accuracy)d 959(139)/82.3(9.4)->
962(214)/82.0(7.9)(N = 11)
Z = 0.199, p = 0.999 / Z = −0.190, p = 0.999 768(163)/91.3(12.7)->
753(198)/91.7(9.4)(N = 6)
Z = 0.473, p = 0.978 / Z = −0.039, p = 1.00
 Chasee 1.02(0.23)- > 1.15(0.23)(N = 11) Z = 2.057, p = 0.140 1.54(0.23)- > 1.48(0.22)(N = 6) Z = −0.646, p = 0.934
 Mazed 99.6(6.5)- > 103.2(6.4)(N = 11) Z = 1.721, p = 0.279 101.3(3.7)- > 105.2(5.1)(N = 6) Z = 1.453, p = 0.438
 PAL 45.6(51.1)- > 32.0(62.9)(N = 11) Z = −1.940, p = 0.181 15.3(15.8)- > 6.5(3.4)(N = 6) Z = −1.122, p = 0.670
Psychological
 Overall 4.00(2,05)- > 4.63(2.41)(N = 11) Z = 1.327, p = 0.524 5.5(2.42)- > 6.50(2.07)(N = 6) Z = 1.484, p = 0.418
 Physical abilities 4.64(2.73)- > 4.45(2.73)(N = 11) Z = −0.342, p = 0.993 5.83(2.93)- > 5.83(2.99)(N = 6) Z = −0.083, p = 1.000
 Skills and abilities 4.54(2.25)- > 4.45(2.38)(N = 11) Z = −0.216, p = 0.999 4.33(2.5)- > 5.67(2.16)(N = 6) Z = 1.896, p = 0.198
 Mental well-being 4.09(2.21)- > 4.91(2.59)(N = 11) Z = 1.457, p = 0.436 5.83(1.72)- > 6.67(1.96)(N = 6) Z = 1.024, p = 0.736
 Relationship to parents 3.18(1.89)- > 4.18(2.36)(N = 11) Z = 1.481, p = 0.420 7.33(1.63)- > 6.83(1.72)(N = 6) Z = −0.516, p = 0.970
 Relationship to others 4.45(2.06)- > 5.27(2.37)(N = 11) Z = 1.389, p = 0.481 7.67(0.82)- > 7.0(1.55)(N = 6) Z = −0.804, p = 0.867
  1. Summary of all tests performed and the effect of the climbing intervention. Z-scores and p-values are obtained from the employed linear mixed models where four tests have been made, Pre1 vs Pre 2 and Pre 2 vs Post both in the CP and TD group. Only statistics from the pre2 vs post session are presented, but p-values are adjusted for multiple comparisons where the pre 1vs pre2 comparison is included.
  2. (Least/Most): indicate test of changes in the least or most affected hand. a Data from two time points only at day 3 and day 8 of the climbing intervention days. b Data from Pre1 and Post only due to technical issue with the measurement device at Pre2 test. c Data only from Pre2 and Post. d Tests for the combined score-measurements are shown here. The individual test of speed and accuracy are not presented here. None of them revealed significant differences when comparing the effect of the climbing intervention in any of the two groups. e The chase test revealed a significant improvement in number of clicks per sec. In the TD group between pre1 and pre2. o) p < 0.1, *) p < 0.05, **) p < 0.01, ***) p < 0.001. Correlation analyses was performed between the changes in the Sit-to-stand, ROM, RFD 0-100 ms and Coherence between FDI and APB measurements the improvements in the climbing abilities in the children with CP. However, none of correlations were significant