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Table 3 Estimated treatment effects for secondary outcomes at each time point from linear mixed effects model and effect sizes

From: Effect of exercising at minimum recommendations of the multiple sclerosis exercise guideline combined with structured education or attention control education – secondary results of the step it up randomised controlled trial

   Estimate of difference between SCT and Control Standard error 95% CI p-value Hedges’ g (95% CI)
Modified Fatigue Impact Scale Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
1.05
−0.11
4.39
3.32
3.49
3.41
(−5.56, 7.65)
(−7.05, 6.82)
(−2.38, 11.17)
0.75
0.97
0.20
−0.12 (−0.61, 0.36)
−0.04 (−0.52, 0.45)
−0.25 (−0.74, 0.24)
Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale29 - physical Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−2.58
−2.34
−0.54
3.26
3.45
3.35
(−9.06, 3.89)
(−9.19, 4.51)
(−7.19, 6.10)
0.43
0.50
0.87
0.06 (−0.43, 0.55)
−0.01 (−0.50, 0.47)
−0.02 (−0.51, 0.47)
Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale29 - psychological Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−3.01
−5.26
3.90
4.39
4.71
4.54
(−11.71, 5.70)
(−14.59, 4.06)
(−5.09, 12.90)
0.50
0.27
0.39
0.25 (−0.24, 0.73)
0.34 (−0.15, 0.83)
−0.11 (−0.60, 0.37)
Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Anxiety Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−0.92
−0.93
0.01
0.91
0.95
0.93
(−2.72, 0.88)
(−2.81, 0.92)
(−1.83, 1.86)
0.31
0.33
0.99
0.34 (−0.15, 0.83)
0.37 (−0.12, 0.86)
0.17 (−0.32, 0.66)
Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
0.45
0.43
0.10
0.77
0.81
0.79
(−1.08, 1.97)
(−1.18, 2.03)
(−1.46, 1.66)
0.56
0.60
0.90
0.12 (−0.37, 0.60)
0.20 (−0.28, 0.69)
0.23 (−0.26, 0.72)
Symbol Digit Modality Test Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−3.03
4.93
−0.55
2.34
2.49
2.51
(−7.70, 1.64)
(−0.02, 9.87)
(−5.54, 4.44)
0.20
0.05
0.83
0.06 (−0.42, 0.55)
0.75 (0.24, 1.25)
0.15 (−0.34, 0.63)
5xSit To Stand Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
0.06
−0.09
−0.62
0.45
0.48
0.48
(−0.84, 0.97)
(−1.10, 0.86)
(−1.60, 0.33)
0.89
0.85
0.20
0.11 (−0.37, 0.60)
0.41 (−0.08, 0.91)
0.49 (−0.003, 0.98)
Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−7.02
16.12
10.53
9.75
10.63
10.90
(−26.45, 12.41)
(−5.03, 37.26)
(−11.13, 32.19)
0.47
0.13
0.34
−0.08 (−0.57, 0.40)
0.51 (0.01, 1.00)
0.34 (−0.15, 0.83)
Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire – Health Index Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−2.24
0.42
0.11
4.55
4.75
4.64
(−11.30, 6.82)
(−9.02, 9.87)
(−9.12, 9.34)
0.62
0.93
0.98
−0.32 (−0.81, 0.17)
−0.13 (−0.62, 0.36)
0.06 (−0.42, 0.55)
Mean steps per day Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−163.35
−439.08
448.87
696.12
703.49
737.27
(−1552.20, 1225.50)
(−1842.34, 964.19)
(−1020.74, 1918.48)
0.81
0.53
0.54
−0.14 (−0.63, 0.35)
0.06 (−0.42, 0.55)
0.08 (−0.57, 0.40)
Mean Energy Expenditure per day Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
114.42
53.61
63.47
95.05
98.07
103.30
(−74.65, 303.48)
(−141.39, 248.61)
(−141.84, 268.78)
0.23
0.59
0.54
0.39 (−0.10, 0.88)
0.40 (−0.09, 0.89)
0.12 (−0.36, 0.61)
Exercise Benefits Questionnaire Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
0.311
1.01
0.11
3.01
3.09
3.05
(−5.34, 6.23)
(−5.16, 7.19)
(−5.98, 6.20)
0.84
0.74
0.97
−0.10 (−0.59, 0.38)
−0.11 (−0.60, 0.37)
−0.19 (−0.68, 0.29)
Exercise Barriers Questionnaire Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−0.24
0.73
0.67
1.07
1.12
1.09
(−2.37, 1.88)
(−1.50, 2.96)
(−1.50, 2.85)
0.82
0.52
0.54
0.08 (−0.41, 0.57)
−0.24 (−0.73, 0.25)
−0.14 (−0.63, 0.35)
Multidimensional Outcomes Expectations for Exercise Scale total Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−0.42
1.31
1.13
1.56
1.63
1.59
(−3.52, 2.68)
(−1.93, 4.55)
(−2.03, 4.30)
0.79
0.42
0.48
−0.18 (−0.67, 0.30)
0.03 (−0.46, 0.52)
0.02 (−0.47, 0.50)
Exercise Goal setting Questionnaire Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
2.03
−0.50
−0.26
2.15
2.30
2.21
(−2.24, 6.30)
(−5.05, 4.06)
(−4.65, 4.13)
0.35
0.83
0.91
0.07 (−0.42, 0.56)
−0.21 (−0.69, 0.28)
−0.27 (−0.76, 0.21)
Exercise Planning Questionnaire Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
2.08
1.86
0.77
1.74
1.84
1.79
(−1.38, 5.34)
(−1.78, 5.51)
(−2.77, 4.32)
0.24
0.31
0.67
0.34 (−0.15, 0.83)
0.31 (−0.18, 0.80)
0.17 (−0.32, 0.66)
Exercise Self-efficacy Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
−3.89
3.01
1.66
7.17
7.48
7.31
(−18.15, 10.38)
(−11.86, 17.88)
(−12.88, 16.20)
0.59
0.69
0.82
−0.07 (−0.55, 0.42)
0.33 (−0.16, 0.82)
0.28 (−0.21, 0.77)
Social Provisions Scale total Post Intervention
Three month follow up
Six month follow up
1.69
2.79
1.15
1.82
1.91
1.86
(−1.94, 5.32)
(−0.10, 6.58)
(−2.55, 4.85)
0.36
0.15
0.54
0.40 (−0.09, 0.90)
0.49 (−0.005, 0.98)
0.45 (−0.05, 0.94)
  1. Bold text indicates moderate effect (Heges G > 0.5)