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Table 4 Unadjusted comparisons of change in secondary outcome measures in each group at each time point

From: Effect of exercising at minimum recommendations of the multiple sclerosis exercise guideline combined with structured education or attention control education – secondary results of the step it up randomised controlled trial

  Mean change Baseline to Post Intervention
(95% CI)
p-value
Mean change Baseline to three month follow up
(95% CI)
p-value
Mean change baseline to six month follow up
(95% CI)
p-value
Variables Intervention Control Intervention Control Intervention Control
Modified Fatigue Impact Scale −4.99
(−9.78, −0.21)
p = 0.04
−7.68
(−12.13, −3.23)
p = 0.01
−8.09
(−13.97, −2.20)
p < 0.01
−7.41
(−12.77, −2.04)
p < 0.01
−5.22
(−10.99, 0.55)
p = 0.07
−10.35
(−16.43, −4.27)
p < 0.01
Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale29 - physical −2.06
(−6.36, 2.23)
p = 0.33
−0.13
(−5.63, 5.37)
p = 0.96
−4.45
(−8.68, −0.22)
p = 0.04
−1.42
(−7.69, 4.84)
p = 0.64
−4.12
(−8.25, 0.01)
p = 0.05
−3.61
(−9.83, 2.62)
p = 0.24
Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale29 psychological −7.54
(−13.28, −1.81)
p = 0.01
−4.22
(−11.19, 2.76)
p = 0.22
−8.37
(−15.85, −0.89)
p = 0.03
−2.02
(−8.11, 4.07)
p = 0.50
−4.94
(−12.84, 2.98)
p = 0.21
−7.60
(−13.71, −1.49)
p = 0.02
Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Anxiety −1.60
(−2.50, 0.30)
p = 0.12
−0.35
(−1.61, 0.90)
p = 0.57
−1.76
(−3.20, −0.31)
p = 0.02
−0.51
(−1.94, 0.92)
p = 0.47
−1.99
(−3.28, −0.71)
p < 0.01
−1.26
(−2.67, 0.15)
p = 0.08
Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale-Depression −0.76
(−1.54, 0.33)
p = 0.20
−0.61
(−1.54, 0.33)
p = 0.19
−1.51
(−2.89, −0.13)
p = 0.03
−1.02
(−2.50, 0.47)
p = 0.17
−1.02
(−2.05, 0.01)
p = 0.05
−0.37
(−1.35, 0.61)
p = 0.44
Symbol Digit Modality Test 1.65
(−1.68, 4.99)
p = 0.32
3.43
(−1.01, 7.87)
p = 0.12
5.04
(2.51, 7.57)
p < 0.01
0.24
(−3.71, 4.18)
p = 0.90
3.05
(0.81, 5.28)
p < 0.01
2.56
(0.07, 5.06)
p = 0.04
5xSit To Stand −1.51
(−2.41, −0.60)
p < 0.01
−1.55
(−2.30, −0.79)
p < 0.01
−2.13
(−3.00, −1.26)
p < 0.01
−1.49
(−2.32, −0.65)
p < 0.01
−2.29
(−3.20, −1.39)
p < 0.01
−1.19
(−1.97, −0.40)
p < 0.01
Modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test 8.56
(−6.86, 23.98)
p = 0.26
10.54
(−6.29, 27.37)
p = 0.21
3.40
(−14.07, 20.87)
p = 0.69
−11.97
(−33.02, 9.08)
p = 0.25
2.87
(−7.18, 13.54)
p = 0.58
−11.54
(−27.67, 4.59)
p = 0.15
Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire – Health Index 9.85
(5.46, 14.23)
p < 0.01
12.92
(4.69, 20.89)
p < 0.01
10.87
(4.20, 17.53)
p < 0.01
12.35
(5.63, 19.07)
p < 0.01
10.65
(4.18, 17.12)
p < 0.01
11.67
(5.67, 17.67)
p < 0.01
Mean steps per day 118.67
(−1002.54,
1239.87)
p = 0.83
30.38
(−1116.58, 1177.34)
p = 0.96
−5.88
(−940.73, 928.97)
p = 0.99
96.85
(−621.18, 814.88)
p = 0.78
756.92
(−440.88, 1954.73)
p = 0.19
86.28
(−849.85, 1022.42)
p = 0.85
Mean Energy Expenditure per day 46.22
(−119.73, 212.17)
p = 0.56
−72.90
(−224.14, 78.33)
p = 0.33
−58.18
(−162.68, 46.33)
p = 0.25
−182.5
(−335.03, −29.97)
p = 0.02
6.61
(−140.78, 154.01)
p = 0.92
−66.76
(−212.64, 79.12)
p = 0.35
Exercise Benefits Questionnaire 2.64
(−0.53, 5.80)
p = 0.09
2.08
(−2.31, 6.48)
p = 0.34
2.18
(−2.41, 6.78)
p = 0.33
1.83
(−3.21, 6.87)
p = 0.46
3.38
(−0.59, 7.35)
p = 0.09
2.39
(−2.33, 7.12)
p = 0.31
Exercise Barriers Questionnaire −1.51
(−2.86, −0.17)
p = 0.03
−1.09
(−2.41, 0.24)
p = 0.10
−1.27
(−3.35, 0.82)
p = 0.22
−1.51
(−3.40, 0.37)
p = 0.11
−1.57
(−3.22, 0.07)
p = 0.06
−2.11
(−4.24, 0.02)
p = 0.05
Multidimensional Outcomes Expectations for Exercise Scale total 1.17
(−0.87, 3.21)
p = 0.25
0.86
(−1.46, 3.19)
p = 0.45
1.84
(−0.24, 3.93)
p = 0.08
−0.21
(−2.87, 2.44)
p = 0.87
1.84
(−0.35, 4.04)
p = 0.10
−0.70
(−3.09, 1.68)
p = 0.55
Exercise Goal setting Questionnaire 7.30
(4.19, 10.4)
p < 0.01
5.96
(2.92, 9.01)
p < 0.01
5.44
(2.14, 8.74)
p < 0.01
6.38
(2.76, 10.0)
p < 0.01
4.88
(2.01, 7.76)
p < 0.01
5.51
(1.89, 9.13)
p < 0.01
Exercise Planning Questionnaire 5.88
(3.37. 8.39)
p < 0.01
3.76
(1.27, 6.25)
p < 0.01
6.42
(3.89, 8.96)
p < 0.01
4.68
(1.76, 7.61)
p < 0.01
4.86
(2.63, 7.09)
p < 0.01
4.20
(1.55, 6.86)
p < 0.01
Exercise Self-efficacy −0.06
(−12.20, 12.07)
p = 0.99
0.52
(−11.75, 12.79)
p = 0.93
1.32
(−10.62, 13.26)
p = 0.82
−9.42
(−24.03, 5.19)
p = 0.19
4.24
(−7.78, 16.25)
p = 0.47
−5.62
(−15.65, 4.42)
p = 0.26
Social Provisions Scale total 1.66
(−1.13, 4.44)
p = 0.23
−0.20
(−2.65, 2.25)
p = 0.86
2.29
(−0.08, 4.65)
p = 0.06
−0.66
(−4.61, 3.29)
p = 0.73
3.13
(0.35, 5.90)
p = 0.03
0.77
(−2.18, 3.72)
p = 0.60
  1. Bold text indicates statistical significance p < 0.05