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Table 3 Prevalence and odds ratios for individual physical conditions (standardised by age, gender and deprivation score). Conditions are ordered by size of odds ratio (largest to smallest)

From: Co-morbidity and polypharmacy in Parkinson’s disease: insights from a large Scottish primary care database

Condition Parkinson’s N (prevalence %) N = 2640 No Parkinson’s N (prevalence %) N = 507,862 Odds ratio (95% CI) (standardised by age, gender and deprivation)a
Constipation 725 (27.5) 29,629 (5.8) 3.92 (3.57–4.31)
Viral hepatitis 1 (0.0) 1684 (0.0) 2.03 (0.27–14.99) p = 0.48
Epilepsy 47 (1.8) 5109 (1.0) 1.79 (1.34–2.40)
Multiple sclerosis 9 (0.3) 1683 (0.3) 1.53 (0.79–2.97) p = 0.20
Visual impairment 77 (2.9) 6297 (1.2) 1.37 (1.09–1.73)
Stroke or transient ischaemic attack 363 (13.8) 33,146 (6.5) 1.37 (1.22–1.53)
Painful condition 573 (21.7) 85,233 (16.8) 1.34 (1.22–1.47)
Irritable bowel syndrome 123 (4.6) 21,903 (4.3) 1.33 (1.11–1.60)
Cirrhosis/chronic liver disease/alcoholic liver disease 9 (0.3) 1684 (0.3) 1.27 (0.66–2.46) p = 0.46
Coronary heart disease 664 (25.2) 74,789 (14.7) 1.22 (1.11–1.33)
Prostate disease 155 (5.9) 13,252 (2.6) 1.25 (1.05–1.48)
Heart failure 178 (6.7) 17,193 (3.4) 1.17 (1.00–1.37) p = 0.04
Any new cancer in the last 5 years 267 (10.1) 32,629 (6.4) 1.16 (1.02–1.32) p = 0.02
Thyrotoxicosis/thyroid disorders incl. Hypothyroidism 291 (11.0) 47,874 (9.4) 1.15 (1.01–1.31)
Glaucoma 135 (5.1) 14,166 (2.8) 1.15 (0.96–1.37) p = 0.10
Dyspepsia 326 (12.4) 51,172 (10.1) 1.13 (1.01–1.22)
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) 150 (5.7) 18,800 (3.7) 1.08 (0.91–1.28) p = 0.34
Diverticular disease 239 (9.1) 30,692 (6.0) 1.06 (0.92–1.21) p = 0.38
Atrial fibrillation 212 (8.0) 22,378 (4.4) 1.03 (0.89–1.18) p = 0.67
Diabetes 348 (13.2) 55,548 (10.9) 1.02 (0.91–1.14) p = 0.72
Inflammatory arthritis and related conditions incl. Gout 269 (10.2) 41,973 (8.3) 1.02 (0.90–1.16) p = 0.71
Inflammatory bowel disease 25 (0.9) 4787 (0.9) 1.02 (0.69–1.52) p = 0.89
Hearing loss 284 (10.8) 36,486 (7.2) 1.01 (0.89–1.14) p = 0.89
Psoriasis or eczema 26 (0.9) 4775 (0.9) 0.93 (0.63–1.08) p = 0.74
Chronic sinusitis 17 (0.6) 4334 (0.9) 0.91 (0.56–1.47) p = 0.70
Active asthma 141 (5.3) 32,307 (6.4) 0.88 (0.74–1.04) p = 0.14
Migraine 8 (0.3) 3697 (0.7) 0.84 (0.42–1.69) p = 0.64
Hypertension 1087 (41.1) 192,833 (38.0) 0.82 (0.76–0.89)
Bronchiectasis 11 (0.4) 2311 (0.5) 0.81 (0.46–1.48) p = 0.50
Chronic kidney disease 226 (8.6) 31,719 (6.3) 0.80 (0.70–0.91)
  1. aAll differences significant at p < 0.001 except where stated