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Table 1 Clinical, radiological and CSF data of the index case (case 1) compared with previously cases reported by Fujimori et al. (case 2) and Ogawa et al. (cases 3–6) with MOG-Abs and a presumptive diagnosis of encephalitis [19, 20]

From: MOG antibody seropositivity in a patient with encephalitis: beyond the classical syndrome

Case 1 2 3 4 5 6
Onset fever, headache, confusion, altered consciousness, unsteady gait dizziness eye pain and visual loss seizure involuntary movemet headache and abnormal behavior
Seizures no yes yes yes yes yes
Optic neuritis no yes yes yes no no
Myelitis no no no no no no
CSF increased cells and proteins increased cells, negative at a second control increased cells increased cells increased cells and proteins increased cells and proteins
First Brain MRI subcortical, periventricular, cortical, white matter, thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, pons frontal cortex frontoparietal cortex frontoparietal cortex parietal cortex emisphere cortex
Second Brain MRI reduction of preexisting lesios corpus callosum, cingulate gyri, frontal lobes negative optic nerve, emispheric cortex negative negative
Third Brain MRI   third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, thalamus, nucleus basalis   negative   
Fourth Brain MRI   reduction of preexisting lesios     
Clinical symptoms wide-based unsteady gate, reduced level of consciousness, diffuse skin swelling and pustules with enanthema headache, paraparesis/paraplegia, memory decline, lethargy delirium, paranoia, hallucination, anorexia eye pain, visual loss, dysuria headache, disorientation agitation, violent behavior, delirium, emotional incontinence, aphasia, hemiparesis
Treatment acyclovir, antibiotics, immunoglobulins methylprednisolone and acyclovir, oral prednisolone methylprednisolone, prednisolone, antiepilepsy drugs methylprednisolone, prednisolone, antiepilepsy drugs acyclovir, antibiotics, antimycotic, dexamethasone, prednisolone, antiepilepsy drugs methylprednisolone, prednisolone, antiepilepsy drugs
Relapses no yes yes no no yes
Outcome almost full recovery full recovery full recovery full recovery full recovery full recovery