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Table 2 Estimated adjusted incidence risk ratio (and 95% confidence interval) for the effect of burst suppression on various outcomes for which unbiased estimates could be made according to the conceptual causal diagram

From: Does burst-suppression achieve seizure control in refractory status epilepticus?

Outcome Effect Controlled variable Burst suppression Incidence risk ratioa (95% confidence interval) P-value
Breakthrough seizure Total = Direct Etiology
Status epilepticus severity score
Dose of midazolam
Yes 0.30 (0.13–0.74) 0.009
Withdrawal seizure Total Etiology
Status epilepticus severity score
Dose of midazolam
Yes 2.04 (0.76–5.47) 0.157
Direct Breakthrough seizure
Dose of midazolam
Yes 2.71 (0.89–8.25) 0.080
In-hospital mortality Total Etiology
Status epilepticus severity score
Dose of midazolam
Time to midazolam therapy
Yes 2.02 (0.74–5.54) 0.170
Direct Breakthrough seizure
Cardiac complication
Dose of midazolam
Etiology
Pulmonary complication
Fever/infection
Status epilepticus severity score
Time to midazolam therapy
Yes 3.25 (0.70–15.02) 0.131
Poor functional outcome at 3 months Total Etiology
Dose of midazolam
Time to midazolam therapy
Status epilepticus severity score
Yes 0.75 (0.22–2.57) 0.646
Poor functional outcome at 3 months Direct Breakthrough seizure
Withdrawal seizure
Dose of midazolam
Etiology
Status epilepticus severity score
Cardiac complication
Pulmonary complication
Fever/infection
Time to midazolam therapy
Yes 0.13 (0.01–1.67) 0.116
Pulmonary complication Total = Direct Dose of midazolam
Status epilepticus severity score
Yes 1.13 (0.46–2.82) 0.785
Cardiac complication Total = Direct Dose of midazolam
Status epilepticus severity score
Yes 0.90 (0.25–3.27) 0.872
Fever/infection Total = Direct Status epilepticus severity score Yes 1.38 (0.55–3.46) 0.498
  1. aAdjusted for confounding and/or intermediate as required by the DAG