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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of variables associated with risk of Multiple Sclerosis

From: Environmental exposures and the risk of multiple sclerosis in Saudi Arabia

Environmental exposures Exposed cases/Exposed controls (n = 307/307) Crude OR 95% CI P value
 First child in family, yes/no 76/264 2.02 1.34–3.06 0.001
 Family history of MS, yes/no 57/294 5.16 2.76–9.64 < 0.001
 Sun exposure during primary school, high/low 139/122 0.55 0.40–0.75 < 0.001
 Sun exposure during intermediate school, high/low 94/169 0.54 0.39–0.75 < 0.001
 Sun exposure during secondary school, high/low 65/192 0.45 0.31–0.64 < 0.001
 Sun exposure during university school, high/lowa 54/184 0.33 0.23 – 0.49 < 0.001
 Breastfeeding, yes/nob 203/37    
 ≥ 5 Servings of fruits / week, yes/no 77/145 0.30 0.21–0.42 < 0.001
 ≥ 5 Servings of vegetables / week, yes/no 145/120 0.57 0.42–0.79 0.001
 ≥ 5 dates times / week, yes/no 156/146 0.94 0.68–1.29 0.69
 ≥ 5 red meat times / week, yes/no 38/268 0.97 0.60–1.57 0.90
 ≥ 5 milk times / week, yes/no 84/239 1.32 0.92–1.91 0.14
 ≥ 5 Fast food times/week, yes/no 46/291 3.21 1.77–5.80 < 0.001
 ≥ 5 Dairy products times / week, yes/no 162/172 1.42 1.04–1.96 0.03
 Daily coffee intake, yes/no 112/147 0.53 0.38–0.73 < 0.001
Illness or surgical interventions:
 History of measles infection, yes/no 63/283 3.05 1.85–5.02 < 0.001
 History of chicken pox infection, yes/no 167/132 0.90 0.65–1.24 0.57
 Appendectomy, yes/no 29/268 0.72 0.43–1.19 0.25
 Tonsillectomy, yes/no 52/264 1.25 0.81–1.94 0.37
Medical history:
 Type I diabetes mellitus, yes/no 15/285 0.67 0.34–1.31 0.235
 Migraine, yes/no 35/269 0.91 0.56–1.49 0.71
 Systematic lupus erythematosus, yes/no 1/302 0.19 0.02–1.69 0.22
 Rheumatoid arthritis, yes/no 17/289 0.94 0.48–1.86 0.86
 Thyroid disorder, yes/no 19/274 0.55 0.30–0.99 0.04
 Crohn’s disease, yes/no 1/306 1 0.06–16.06 1
 Ulcerative colitis, yes/no 18/294 1.41 0.68–2.93 0.36
 Psoriasis, yes/no 7/303 1.77 0.51–6.10 0.361
Family history of medical conditions:
 Type I diabetes mellitus, yes/no 154/154 1.01 0.74–1.39 0.94
 Migraine, yes/no 53/249 0.90 0.59–1.35 0.60
 Systematic lupus erythematosus, yes/no 10/291 0.61 0.27–1.37 0.23
 Rheumatoid arthritis, yes/no 69/239 1.02 0.70–1.49 0.92
 ≥ 13-year age of menarche, yes/no 98/138 1.11 0.77–1.61 0.57
Tobacco use:
 Current tobacco use, cases/controls 58/52 1.16 0.77–1.76 0.47
 Ex-smoker, cases/controls 19/15 1.32 0.84–1.56 0.43
 Never smoker, cases/controls 230/240 Ref.   
 Passive smoking in childhood, yes/no 113/194 1 0.72–1.39 1
BMI:
 ≥ 30, cases/controls 76/74 0.92 0.62–1.37 0.67
 25–29.99, cases/controls 90/107 0.75 0.52–1.09 0.13
 ≤ 24.99, cases/controls 141/126 Ref.   
 Parental consanguinity (first cousin), yes/no 63/222 0.67 0.46–0.98 0.03
  1. aNot applicable (5 MS cases and 3 controls)
  2. bNot know (58 cases and 52 controls)