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Table 1 Demographic, clinical, and semiquantitative/quantitative study outcomes of the whole cohort, as well as of the subcohorts with and without gait and balance deficits

From: Wearables for gait and balance assessment in the neurological ward - study design and first results of a prospective cross-sectional feasibility study with 384 inpatients

  Whole cohort (N = 384) Controls (N = 151) Gait deficits (N = 79) Balance deficits (N = 44) Gait and balance deficits (N = 110) P-Value
Median Range Median Range Median Range Median Range Median Range
Age [years] 64 40–90 57 40–86 60 40–89 70*# 44–89 69.5*# 41–90 < 0.0001
Gender [% female] 42.4   43.0   36.7   43.2   45.5   0.67
Height [m] 1.72 1.48–2.01 1.73 1.49–2.01 1.73 1.48–1.98 1.70 1.58–1.88 1.70 1.49–2.00 0.04
Weight [kg] 79 37–134 80 50–134 82 46–117 79 55–115 74 37–123 0.13
BMI [kg/m2] 26.2 14.9–43.0 26.3 19.4–41.8 26.4 17.3–41.6 26.8 19.4–38.4 25.9 14.9–43.0 0.77
Falls in the last 24 months [N] 0 0–100 0 0–50 0 0–50 1* 0–55 1*# 0–100 < 0.0001
At least one fall in the last 24 months [%] 46   29   42   62*   65*#   < 0.0001
LACHS (0–15) 3 0–10 2 0–8 3* 0–6 3* 1–9 4*# 0–10 < 0.0001
MMSE (0–30) 28 13–30 29 24–30 28* 13–30 28* 13–30 27* 13–30 < 0.0001
TMT-A [s] 49 13–300 38 13–300 48* 23–300 55* 26–300 72*# 17.7–300 < 0.0001
TMT-B [s] 149 34–300 101 34–300 129* 38–300 174* 60–300 300*# 38.8–300 < 0.0001
∆TMT [s] 85 −30-280 60 −30-280 78* 0–253 98 0–257 149* 0–270 < 0.0001
Timed up and go convenient speed [s] 12 6–92 10 6–25 12* 8–28 11* 8–18 16*#+ 8–92 < 0.0001
Timed up and go fast speed [s] 9 5–47 7 5–15 10* 6–22 11* 6–15 14*#+ 7–47 < 0.0001
BDI II (0–63) 10 0–51 8 0–51 10 0–28 10 0–38 12* 0–51 0.0004
FES-I (0–64) 20 0–64 18 0–63 21* 0–44 20* 14–48 27*#+ 14–64 < 0.0001
EQ5D VAS (0–100) 60 1–100 70 20–100 55 10–95 50* 5–90 50*# 1–95 < 0.0001
Functional Reach [cm] 23 3–82 27 8–45 23* 3–82 20* 5–35 18*# 5–34 < 0.0001
Gait speed [m/s] 1.10 0.27–2.33 1.34 0.95–2.33 0.99* 0.56–1.67 1.15*# 0.81–2.03 0.80*#+ 0.27–1.5 < 0.0001
Grip force [kg] 27 3–76 29 10–76 29 7–56 28 15–51 23*# 3–51 < 0.0001
  1. Data is presented with median and range. P-values were calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis-test, with post hoc Mann-Whitney-U-Test and Chi2 test. For post hoc testing Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied. * p < 0.0083 for comparison with the control cohort group, #p < 0.0083 for comparison with the gait deficit cohort, +p < 0.0083 for comparison with the balance deficit cohort. BDI II Beck’s depression inventory II, BMI Body mass index, EQ5D VAS Visual analog scale of the EuroQol-5 dimension questionnaire, FES-I Falls efficacy scale international, LACHS Geriatric screening according to Lachs et al., MMSE Mini-mental state examination, TMT Trail making test (part A, B, and B-A = ∆TMT)