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Table 2 Performances of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Healthy Control groups and intergroup effects’ sizes (Cohen’s d, Hedge’s G and Glass’ Δ for high variances values). Values are shown as mean and standard deviation. Effects’ sizes with significant T Student’s Test or Mann-Whitney Test (p < 0.05) are identified with *

From: The subtleties of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory study using hierarchichal cluster analysis of CANTAB results

  Multiple Sclerosis Healthy Control Cohen's D Hedge's G Glass' Δ
Spatial Working Memory (SWM)
 Strategy (STG) 38.28 ± 3.63 35.71 ± 6.95 0.487* 0.494* 0.388*
 Total Errors (TE) 49.11 ± 20.22 41.56 ± 23.55 0.325 0.327 0.296
Rapid Visual Processing (RVP)
 A’ 0.84 ± 0.06 0.88 ± 0.04 0.766* 0.759* 1.012*
 Probability of Hit (PH) 0.49 ± 0.16 0.57 ± 0.16 0.401 0.409 0.433
 Mean Latency (ML) 567.67 ± 167.17 446.19 ± 72.97 1.115* 1.099* 1.790*
Paired Associate Learning (PAL)
 First Trial Memory Score (FTMS) 11.8 ± 4.43 13.18 ± 3.02 4.623 0.396 0.517
 Mean Trials to Success (MTS) 3.17 ± 1.68 2.07 ± 0.76 0.870* 0.857* 1.486*
 Total Errors Adjusted (TEA) 37.71 ± 35.62 17.84 ± 14.28 0.776* 0.763* 1.597*
Reaction Time (RTI)
 5-Choice Accuracy Score (5CAS) 14.71 ± 0.62 14.93 ± 0.24 0.483 0.475 0.932
 5-Choice Movement Time (5CMT) 675.92 ± 182.6 ms 598.55 ± 131.31 ms 0.655 0.649 0.862
 5-Choice Reaction Time (5CRT) 446.31 ± 94.19 ms 403.93 ± 76.61 ms 0.424 0.422 0.474
 Simple Accuracy Score (SAS) 14.54 ± 0.95 14.81 ± 0.47 0.223* 0.223* 0.221*
 Simple Movement Time (SMT) 688.01 ± 198.74 ms 663.33 ± 220.78 ms 0.267 0.267 0.258
 Simple Reaction Time (SRT) 425.19 ± 87.09 ms 377.23 ± 76.04 ms 0.657* 0.654* 0.699*
Delayed Matched to Sample (DMS)
 Total Correct (TC) 16.31 ± 2.98 17.96 ± 1.46 0.660* 0.650* 1.141*
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) 28.17 ± 2.35 29.25 ± 0.85 0.611 0.600 1.270
Verbal fluency 1 (ANIMALS) 15.65 ± 5.72 18.61 ± 3.68 0.615* 0.610* 0.804*
Verbal fluency 2 (FRUITS) 14.54 ± 4.06 16.74 ± 3.24 0.599* 0.596* 0.679*
Verbal fluency 3 (A) 10.94 ± 4.89 12.96 ± 4.33 0.437* 0.436* 0.466*
Verbal fluency 4 (F) 12.37 ± 4.9 16.09 ± 3.76 0.852* 0.847* 0.989*
Word list Memory task 20.2 ± 3.27 20.51 ± 3.43 0.092 0.093 0.090
Word list recall 6.85 ± 1.73 7.16 ± 1.63 0.184 0.184 0.190
Word list recognition 9.12 ± 1.07 9.51 ± 0.99 0.378 0.378 0.394