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Table 5 Quantitative summary of Multiple Sclerosis patients z-score cognitive deficits based on means of Healthy Control (HC) group performance. All variables showed statistical intergroup difference (T test or Mann Whitney test) between Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Healthy Control (HC) groups. Variables with significant outcomes in discriminant analysis are identified with (*). In addition, tests’ measures of Information Processing Speed (IPS) are marked with blue color and memory tests’ scores, in general, are marked with orange color. Note that almost all subjects showed, at least, subtle cognitive deficits (91.4%) in information processing speed, and most of them showed, at least, subtle cognitive deficit (71.4%) in memory. Only one subject did not present any cognitive deficit based on z-scores. Abbreviations utilized from the List of Abbreviations in this paper

From: The subtleties of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis: an exploratory study using hierarchichal cluster analysis of CANTAB results

Analyzed Measures Z-score Deficits N (%)
All Measures ≥0.5 34 (97.1%)
≥1.0 30 (85.7%)
≥1.5 23 (65.7%)
Simple Reaction Time (SRT, RTI test)* ≥0.5 19 (54.3%)
≥1.0 8 (22.8%)
≥1.5 7 (20%)
Mean Latency (ML, RVP test)* ≥0.5 22 (62.9%)
≥1.0 20 (57.1%)
≥1.5 14 (40%)
Total Errors Adjusted (TEA, PAL test)* ≥0.5 21 (60%)
≥1.0 14 (40%)
≥1.5 11 (31.4%)
A’ (RVP) ≥0.5 22 (62.8%)
≥1.0 15 (42.8%)
≥1.5 11 (31.4%)
Mean Trials to Success (MTS, PAL test) ≥0.5 18 (51.4%)
≥1.0 16 (45.7%)
≥1.5 13 (37.1%)
Simple Accuracy Score (SAS, RTI test) ≥0.5 11 (31.4%)
≥1.0 11 (31.4%)
≥1.5 11 (31.4%)
Total Correct (TC, DMS test) ≥0.5 19 (54.3%
≥1.0 15 (42.9%)
≥1.5 12 (34.3%)
Information Processing Speed (IPS) ≥0.5 32 (91.4%)
≥1.0 28 (80%)
≥1.5 22 (62.8%)
Memory (General) ≥0.5 25 (71.4%)
≥1.0 20 (57.1%)
≥1.5 16 (42.8%)