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Table 2 Headache management characteristics by chiropractors (often/almost every headache patient compared to never/rarely)

From: The management of common recurrent headaches by chiropractors: a descriptive analysis of a nationally representative survey

Treatment approach Migraine (often/almost all) (n = 387) Tension headache (often/almost all) (n = 382) Cervicogenic headache (often/almost all) (n = 382)
Joint-based manipulative therapies
 Spinal manipulation 318(82.2%) 337(87.5%) 349(90.6%)
 Non-thrust spinal mobilisations 264(88.4%) 252(65.5%) 252(65.5%)
 Instrument adjusting 279(72.1%) 270(70.1%) 273(70.9%)
 Drop-piece methods 133(34.4%) 148(38.4%) 153(39.7%)
Soft-tissue based and exercise therapies
 Soft tissue to neck/shoulders 331(85.3%) 339(88.1%) 340(88.3%)
 Electro-physical therapies 30(7.8%) 30(7.8%) 30(7.8%)
 Soft-tissue/exercise to temporomandibular 252(65.1%) 249(64.7%) 233(60.5%)
 Exercises – neck/shoulders 311(81.6%) 337(87.5%) 353(91.7%)
Patient advice and education
 Advice on headache triggers 364(94.1%) 350(90.9%) 338(87.8%)
 Advice on diet and fitness 331(85.6%) 336(87.3%) 327(84.9%)
 Stress management 346(89.4%) 347(90.1%) 337(87.5%)
  1. Survey key: Spinal manipulation (manual adjusting/manipulation (including Diversified, Gonstead); Drop piece methods (drop-piece/Thompson or similar); Soft tissue – neck/shoulders (massage, myofascial, stretching or trigger points to neck/shoulders); Electro-physical therapies (including TENS, ultrasound)