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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive adults with new-onset seizure (n = 95)

From: Mortality & recurrent seizure risk after new-onset seizure in HIV-positive Zambian adults

Demographic
 Gender, female n (%) 41 (43)
 Age, mean (SD) 36.9 (10.2)
 Family history of epilepsy n (%) 11 (12)
 History of head injury n (%) 2 (2)
 History of severe malaria n (%) 6 (6)
 History of meningitis/encephalitis n (%) 7 (7)
 History of coma n (%) 1 (1)
 History of opportunistic infection (n = 94)a n (%) 5 (5)
 History of stroke (n = 94) a n (%) 4 (4)
Clinical
Seizure type n (%)
 Focal clonic 13 (14)
 Focal onset to bilateral tonic-clonic 33 (35)
 Tonic clonic 1 (1)
 Unknown onset bilateral tonic-clonic 42 (44)
 Unclassified 6 (6)
Presenting seizure severity n (%)b
Status epilepticus 50 (53)
Glasgow Coma Score, mean (SD) 14.3 (1.9)
Karnofsky score < 50 at enrollment n (%) 16 (17)
WHO clinical stage n (%)a
 I or II 12 (13)
 III or IV 81 (85)
Current cART use n (%)
 Yes, less than a year 13 (14)
 Yes, more than a year 17 (18)
 No, defaulted 7 (7)
 No, never 58 (61)
CD4+ T-cell count at enrolment, mean cells/mm3(n = 89) a (SD) 179 (185)
Underlying seizure etiology c
CNS opportunistic infection n (%) 21 (22)
Other infection n (%) 8 (8)
Structural lesion n (%) 25 (26)
Hyponatremia (n = 91) n (%) 47 (49)
Likely secondary to another etiology 17/47 (36)
Unknown, n (%) 20 (21)
  1. Data is presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (IQR), as appropriate. WHO World Health Organization, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, CNS central nervous system. aPatient unable to provide information. bMissing data for 6 participants cMore than one seizure etiology possible