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Table 1 Characteristics of the 25 included studies (unc = unclear; RCT = randomized controlled trial)

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to increase stroke thrombolysis

  Study Location Design Controls Primary Intervention # in control / # in intervention IV tPA rate in intervention (%) IV tPA rate in control (%)
Morgenstern et al 2002 rural quasi-experimental concurrent multilevel stroke education 233/266 8.65 0.9
Morgenstern et al 2003 rural quasi-experimental concurrent multilevel stroke education 70/80 11.2 1.4
Wojner-Alexandrov et al 2005 urban pre-post historical multilevel stroke education 198/533 12 10.6
Nam et al 2007 unc pre-post historical computerized physician order entry 529/213 11.7 2.6
Meyer et al 2008 Rural and urban RCT concurrent video consultation 103/102 24 30
Quain et al 2008 urban pre-post historical pre-hospital acute stroke triage protocol 107/140 21.4 4.7
De Luca et al 2009 urban cluster-RCT concurrent pre-hospital acute stroke triage protocol 115/175 8.6 1.7
Müller-Nordhorn et al 2009 urban cluster-RCT concurrent direct-to-community member educational material about stroke symptoms and calling EMS 741/647 2.9 2.3
Demaerschalk et al 2010 rural RCT concurrent telestroke 27/26 31 30
Heo et al 2010 urban pre-post historical computerized physician order entry 5798/5405 5.8 3.4
Moynihan et al 2010 urban pre-post historical Introduction of a hub and spoke model unc/unc 6 1.2
Dirks et al 2011 rural and urban cluster-RCT concurrent meetings at trial hospitals based on the Breakthrough Series model 2140/2483 16 14
Huang et al 2011 urban pre-post historical less restrictive exclusion tPA treatment criteria 333/128 6.25 5.1
Berglund et al 2012 urban RCT concurrent increased pre-hospital priority level for patients with stroke 454/488 12.3 5.3
O’Brien et al 2012 urban pre-post historical pre-hospital acute stroke triage protocol 67/115 19.1 7.5
Walter et al 2012 rural and urban RCT (randomized week) concurrent mobile stroke unit 40/49 25 20
Scott et al 2013 rural and urban cluster-RCT concurrent hospital-based stroke education 9222/8419 2.8 2.1
Ebinger 2014 urban RCT (randomized week) concurrent mobile stroke unit 1041/1070 29 21.1
Flynn et al 2014 unc pre-post historical mass media stroke awareness campaign Unc/unc unc unc
Fonarow et al 2014 rural and urban pre-post historical Target:Stroke initiative 541,358/479,281 8.1 5.7
Martinez-Sanchez et al 2014 urban pre-post historical telestroke 259/225 8 4.7
Müller-Barna et al 2014 rural pre-post historical telestroke 2466/4409 15.5 2.6
Ruff et al 2014 urban pre-post historical implementation of 10 best practices in single center 1413/925 15.4 8.2
Soulleihet et al 2014 urban time series analysis none public awareness campaigns unc/unc unc unc
Van Schaik et al 2014 urban pre-post historical pre- and intra-hospital acute stroke triage protocol 828/917 9.8 4.95
  1. unc unclear; RCT randomized controlled trial