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Table 1 Domains and corresponding questions with possible diagnosis

From: Towards seeing the visual impairments in Parkinson’s disease: protocol for a multicentre observational, cross-sectional study

Domains Issues Possible diagnosis Question
Ocular surface lacrimal fluid, eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea dry eye disease, blepharitis, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, low eye blink rate, 1: I have blurry vision, when I read or work on a computer.
2: I have a burning sensation or gritty feeling in my eyes.
3: I have mucus/slime or particles in my eyes or eyelids. 4: I have watery eyes.
Intra-ocular lens, uvea, macula, retina diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, hypertensive retinopathy, micro-vascular retinopathy, cataract, refraction errors, glaucoma 5: When I read, some letters disappear.
6: Lines that should be straight, appear to be wavy or blurred.
7: I won’t go out alone in the evening or at night because my night vision is insufficient.
8: When I drive at night, the oncoming headlights cause more glare than before.
Oculomotor eye movements, binocular cooperation strabismus, convergence insufficiency, 3rd, 4th and 6th nerve palsies, nystagmus, gaze abnormality 9: Quick movements are hard to follow with my eyes.
10: I have double vision.
11: I can read better with one eye closed.
12: I have trouble with depth perception. I find it hard to say which one of two objects is closer.
Optic nerve optic nerve disease opticopathy, glaucoma (Mimics: structural lesion, hemianopsia) 13: Colours seem to be paler than before.
14: I can’t read plain text on a coloured or grey background.
15: I run into objects or people or feel that parts of my visual field are missing.
16. I have problems with rapid changes of light intensity. (For example, driving through a tunnel).
  1. The Visual Impairment in Parkinson’s Questionnaire (VIPD-Q) has been divided in 4 domains as shown above. These domains were agreed upon by a consensus procedure involving three independent ophthalmologists (one from each study site). Six questions of the questionnaire could not be categorized in one domain, but rather indicate the involvement of more than one anatomical domain