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Table 1 The clinical characteristics of DBS patients

From: Deep brain stimulation for dystonia in Finland during 2007–2016

  Focal Generalized Segmental Hemidystonia All
(n = 21) (n = 10) (n = 5) (n = 1) (n = 37)
Female 13 (62%) 6 (60%) 3 (60%) 1 (100%) 23 (62%)
Male 8 (38%) 4 (40%) 2 (40%)   14 (38%)
Mean age at operation ± SD, years 51,9 ± 6,6 45,7 ± 19,3 58,9 ± 8,5 25,7 50,3 ± 12,9
Mean follow-up time ± SD, months 19 ± 13 19 ± 16 25 ± 18 96 22 ± 19
Etiology
 Idiopathic 21 (100%) 8 (80%) 5 (100%)   34 (92%)
 Inherited   1 (10%)    1 (3%)
 Acquired   1 (10%)   1 (100%) 2 (5%)
Nervous system pathology
 No evidence 21 (100%) 5 (50%) 4 (80%)   30 (81%)
 Structural lesion   3 (27%)   1 (100%) 4 (11%)
 Degeneration   2 (18%) 1 (20%)   3 (8%)
Clinical characteristics
Associated features
 Isolated dystonia 21 (100%) 5 (50%) 4 (80%)   30 (81%)
 combined dystonia     1 (100%) 1 (3%)
 Other neurological manifestation 5 (50%) 1 (20%)   6 (16%)
Disease course
 Stabile 20 (95%) 3 (30%) 2 (40%) 1 (100%) 26 (70%)
 Progressive 1 (5%) 7 (70%) 3 (60%)   11 (30%)
Age at onset
 3–12 years   5 (50%)    5 (14%)
 13–20 years 2 (9%) 1 (10%)    3 (8%)
 21–40 years 10 (48%) 1 (10%)   1 (100%) 12 (32%)
 over 40 years 9 (43%) 3 (30%) 5 (100%)   17 (46%)
Symptoms before DBS
 under 10 years 9 (43%) 5 (50%) 4 (80%) 1 (100%) 19 (51%)
 over 10 years 12 (57%) 5 (50%) 1 (20%)   18 (49%)
Working ability before DBS
 Fit to work, full-time 7 (33%) 3 (30%) 1 (20%)   11 (30%)
 Unable to work 11 (52%) 4 (40%) 2 (40%) 1 (100%) 19 (51%)
 Retired because of age 3 (14%) 3 (30%) 2 (40%)   8 (19%)