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Table 2 Association between study variables and early arrival at emergency department

From: Status of prehospital delay and intravenous thrombolysis in the management of acute ischemic stroke in Nepal

Study variables Early n (%) Late n (%) Odds ratio (OR) 95% C.I. P value
Age < 60 18 (39.1) 56 (30.8) 1.44 0.74–2.8 0.18
> 60 28 (60.9) 126 (69.2) 1 Reference  
Sex Male 25 (54.3) 96 (52.7) 1.066 0.56–2.04 0.49
Female 21 (45.7) 86 (47.3) 1 Reference  
Time of onset 7 am-7 pm 40 (87) 113 (62.1) 4.07 1.65–10.1 0.001
7 pm-7 am 6 (13) 69 (37.9) 1 Reference  
Day of onset Weekday 41 (89.1) 142 (78) 2.31 0.85–6.23 0.064
Holiday 5 (10.9) 40 (22) 1 Reference  
Location Home 42 (91.3) 150 (82.4) 2.24 0.75–6.6 0.101
Outside home 4 (8.7) 32 (17.6) 1 Reference  
Identification of stroke Yes 26 (56.5) 10 (5.5) 22.36 9.42–53.04 0.000
No 20 (43.5) 172 (94.5) 1 Reference  
Facial palsy Yes 33 (71.7) 61 (33.5) 5.03 2.47–10.26 0.000
No 13 (28.3) 121 (66.5) 1 Reference  
Visual disturbances Yes 3 (6.55) 20 (11) 0.563 0.16–1.99 0.276
No 43 (93.45) 162 (89) 1 Reference  
Limb weakness Yes 32 (69.6) 122 (67) 1.124 0.56–2.26 0.445
No 14 (30.4) 60 (33) 1 Reference  
Speech disturbances Yes 37 (80.4) 116 (63.7) 2.34 1.06–5.1 0.021
No 9 (19.6) 66 (36.3) 1 Reference  
Sensory Yes 1 (2.2) 10 (5.5) 0.382 0.05–3.06 0.31
No 45 (97.8) 172 (94.5) 1 Reference  
Headache Yes 10 (21.7) 29 (15.9) 1.46 0.65–3.27 0.233
No 36 (78.3) 153 (84.1) 1 Reference  
Unconsciousness Yes 3 (6.5) 31 (17) 0.34 0.1–1.1 0.053
No 43 (93.5) 151 (83) 1 Reference  
Response of symptoms Rush to emergency 29 (63) 67 (36.8) 2.93 1.5–5.7 0.001
Wait for symptoms to subside 17 (37) 115 (63.2) 1 Reference  
Awareness of stroke treatment Yes 25 (54.3) 19 (10.4) 10.21 4.8–21.6 0.000
No 21 (45.7) 163 (89.6) 1 Reference  
Presentation to ER Direct 33 (71.7) 68 (37.4) 4.2 2.09–8.66 0.000
Referral 13 (28.3) 114 (62.6) 1 Reference  
Transportation Ambulance 19 (41.3) 51 (28) 1.8 0.92–3.5 0.06
Others 27 (28.7) 131 (72) 1 Reference  
Traffic jam Present 10 (21.7) 97 (53.3) 0.243 0.11–0.52 0.000
Not present 36 (78.3) 85 (46.7) 1 Reference  
Distance from hospital < 20 KM 34 (73.9) 48 (26.4) 7.9 3.8–16.5 0.000
> 20 KM 12 (26.1) 134 (73.6) 1 Reference  
Education Above high school 16 (34.8) 18 (9.9) 4.85 2.2–10.5 0.000
Below high school 30 (65.2) 164 (90.1) 1 Reference  
Income <  1 lacks per annum 32 (69.6) 90 (49.5) 0.42 0.21–0.85 0.011
>  1 lacks per annum 14 (30.4) 92 (50.5) 1 Reference  
Hypertension Yes 29 (63) 99 (54.4) 1.43 0.73–2.7 0.187
No 17 (37) 83 (45.6) 1 Reference  
Diabetes mellitus Yes 3 (6.5) 37 (20.3) 0.273 0.08–0.9 0.018
No 43 (93.5) 145 (79.7) 1 Reference  
Smoking Yes 11 (23.9) 55 (30.2) 0.72 0.35–1.5 0.257
No 35 (76.1) 127 (69.8) 1 Reference  
Alcohol consumption Yes 15 (32.6) 47 (25.8) 1.4 0.7–2.8 0.228
No 31 (63.4) 135 (74.2) 1 Reference  
Coronary arterial disease Yes 5 (10.9) 16 (8.8) 1.26 0.43–3.6 0.422
No 41 (89.1) 166 (91.2) 1 Reference  
History of stroke Present 9 (19.6) 18 (9.9) 2.21 0.92–5.3 0.06
Not present 37 (80.4) 164 (90.1) 1 Reference  
Baseline score at admission (mean ± SD) mRS 3.02 ± 1.42 3.36 ± 1.37 NA NA 0.143
NIHSS 7.58 ± 3.87 8.06 ± 5.26 NA NA 0.568