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Table 3 Study results for the secondary outcome of cytokine levels in other physiological fluids

From: A systematic review of cytokines in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis/systemic exertion intolerance disease (CFS/ME/SEID)

  Cytokine Levels
Author Cytokines Analysed Increased in CFS/ME vs. HC (p-value)a Decreased in CFS/ME vs. HC (p-value)a
Cerebrospinal Fluid
 Hornig, et al. [22] IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-17F, GM-CSF, LIF, IL12p40, IL12p70, IFN-α2, IFN-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TNFβ, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL11, CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, TGF-α, TGF-β, VEGF-A, FGF-basic, β-NGF, HGF, SCF, M-CSF, G-CSF, Resistin, VEGF-A, Leptin CCL11 (0.0189), CXCL10 (0.0261) IL-1RA (0.014), IL-1b (0.0003), IL-5 (0.0431), IL-6 (0.0074), IL-8 (0.033), IL-10 (0.0036), IL-12p40 (0.0026), IL-17F (0.0136), TNF-β (0.0071), SCF (0.001), M-CSF (0.0016), GM-CSF (0.034), G-CSF (0.0211), FGF-β (0.0278), VEGF-A (0.0138), LIF (< 0.0001), Resistin (0.0132)
 Natelson, et al. [28] IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, TNF-α, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, CCL5, CCL2 IL-8 (< 0.007), IL-10 (< 0.025) none
 Peterson, et al. [30] IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL- 9, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, FGF-basic, CCL11, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-5, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, TNF-α, VEGF none IL-10 (< 0.05)
Nasal Lavage
 Repka-Ramirez, et al. [31] IL-8, TNF-α, NGF NS NS
  1. HC healthy controls, IL interleukin, IFN interferon, LT lymphotoxin, TNF tumor necrosis factor, FGF fibroblast growth factor, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, G-CSF granulocyte colony stimulating factor, GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, CXCL C-X-C motif ligand, CCL C-C motif ligand, TGF transforming growth factor, LIF leukaemia inhibitory factor, NGF nerve growth factor, HGF hepatocyte growth factor, SCF stem cell factor, M-CSF macrophage colony stimulating factor, NR p-value not reported, NS not significant
  2. a Cytokines listed as assayed for a particular study that do not appear as either increased or decreased indicate their changes between the groups were not significant
  3. This table contains the result of the studies pertaining to cytokine levels in other 263 physiological fluids