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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants by Treatment Group

From: Remote ischemic conditioning improves cognition in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia

Characteristic Treatment Group(n = 18) Control Group(n = 19) p
Age, mean (SD),y 67.6 (7.2) 70.6 (7.4) 0.216a
Female, n(%) 6 (33.3) 9 (47.4) 0.508b
Education, n(%),y    1.000b
 ≤5 1 (5.6) 2 (10.5)  
 〉5 17 (94.4) 17 (89.5)  
Medical history, n(%)
 Hypertension 16 (88.9) 16 (84.2) 1.000b
 Hyperlipidemia 5 (27.8) 5 (26.3) 1.000b
 Diabetes mellitus 6 (33.3) 9 (47.4) 0.508b
Concomitant drugs, n(%)
 Antihypertensive agents 14 (77.8) 15 (78.9) 0.471b
 Aspirin 11 (61.1) 10 (52.6) 0.527b
 Lipid-reducing agents 5 (27.8) 5 (26.3) 0.651b
 Hypoglycemic agents 6 (33.3) 8 (42.1) 0.621b
Psychometric scores, mean (SD)
 HAMD 5.06 ± 2.41 5.61 ± 3.76 0.913c
 MMSE 23.44 ± 3.31 22.82 ± 3.99 0.883c
 MOCA 18.28 ± 3.89 18.47 ± 4.78 0.807c
 CDR 1.11 ± 0.58 1.27 ± 0.56 0.443c
 HVLT1 12.56 ± 4.15 13.05 ± 5.33 0.869c
 HVLT2 2.72 ± 2.61 2.53 ± 2.80 0.822c
 HVLT3 6.22 ± 2.21 6.05 ± 2.44 0.845c
 COWAT 5.11 ± 3.34 5.00 ± 3.32 0.852c
 TMT-A 125.83 ± 69.54 147.47 ± 101.80 0.518c
 TMT-B 262.83 ± 122.24 252.79 ± 118.28 0.916c
 SDMT 19.67 ± 9.32 23.61 ± 15.34 0.542c
 JLO 17.94 ± 7.60 17.50 ± 5.76 0.650c
 ADL 25.33 ± 2.61 25.11 ± 2.18 0.799c
 NPI 2.06 ± 1.11 1.74 ± 1.05 0.425c
 Hs-CRP (mg/dL) 2.38 ± 2.87 1.63 ± 1.71 0.513 a
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 16.26 ± 7.05 16.25 ± 4.99 0.995a
 TNF-α (pg/mL) 5.64 ± 1.12 5.54 ± 0.83 0.751a
 Homocysteine 15.9 ± 6.34 15.6 ± 5.62 0.870 a
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.89 ± 0.69 1.75 ± 0.44 0.487a
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.90 ± 1.12 4.52 ± 1.12 0.320a
 LDL (mmol/L) 3.01 ± 0.87 2.63 ± 0.78 0.160a
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.11 ± 0.29 1.29 ± 0.29 0.063a
 WMLV (cm3) 84.00 ± 53.82 71.26 ± 28.03 0.663 a
WBWM
 FA 0.30 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.28 a
 MD(×10−4) 9.5 ± 0.79 8.9 ± 0.33 0.22 a
NAWM
 FA 0.30 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.17 0.315 a
 MD(×10−4) 8.9 ± 0.73 8.5 ± 0.37 0.389 a
  1. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating, COWAT Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the outcome was the sum of correct words in the both parts, FA fractional anisotropy, HAMD Hamilton Depression Scale, hs-CRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein, HVLT1 immediate memory of Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), HVLT2 delayed memory of HVLT-R, HVLT3, recognition test of HVLT-R, HDL high density lipoprotein, IL-6 interleukin 6, JLO Judgment of Line Orientation, LDL low density lipoprotein, MD mean diffusivity, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MOCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, NAWM normal-appearing white matter, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory, SDMT Symbol Digit Modalities Test, TMT-A Trail Making Test A, TMT-B Trail Making Test B, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, WBWM whole-brain white matter, WMLV white matter lesion volume
  2. aIndependent t-test
  3. bChi-square test or Fisher exact test
  4. c The Mann-Whitney U test