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Table 2 Description of participants from the UK ME/CFS Biobank, by category of recruitment and variables under the following domains: demographic, socio-economic, family health history, lifestyle, previous morbidity (prior disease onset for the diseased groups), and recent exposures

From: A logistic regression analysis of risk factors in ME/CFS pathogenesis

DomainsVariablesCategory of RecruitmentTotal
Healthy controlMS controlME/CFSmm
(n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)
DemographicSexMale5138.11621.66323.413027.3
Female8361.95878.420676.634772.7
Age group>=18 & <302216.411.44316.06613.8
>=30 & <403324.61216.26022.310522.0
>=40 & <503526.11824.37527.912826.8
>=50 & <=604432.84358.19133.817837.3
Incidence age group<18n/an/a34.24216.74514.0
>=18 & <30n/an/a1926.88835.110733.2
>=30 & <40n/an/a2231.06124.38325.8
>=40 & <50n/an/a2231.04919.57122.0
>=50 & <=60n/an/a57.0114.4165.0
EthnicityWhite11991.57094.624796.543694.8
Other118.545.493.5245.2
Socio-economicCurrent marital statusMarried/with partner9876.65272.214154.929163.7
Single3023.42027.811645.116636.3
Marital status (prior disease onset)Married/with partnern/an/a5676.011544.817151.8
Divorced/separatedn/an/a56.72610.1319.4
Singlen/an/a1217.311645.112838.8
EducationUp to high school3728.92838.99336.515834.7
Started HE1310.21115.34015.76414.1
Completed HE/PG7860.93345.812247.823351.2
Individual income (current)Higher than £19,9996351.62843.84016.713130.8
Up to £19,9995948.43656.219983.329469.2
 Individual income (prior disease onset)Higher than £19,999n/an/a3656.26728.810334.7
Up to £19,999n/an/a2843.816671.219465.3
  meanSDmeanSDmeanSD  
Index of multiple deprivationaDeciles5.92.65.82.65.82.6  
  (n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)
Family health historyHigh blood pressureNo6954.33956.511647.422450.8
Yes5845.73043.512952.721749.2
DiabetesNo10281.04970.017873.632975.1
Yes2419.12130.06426.510924.9
Heart problemsNo8568.04462.014759.827662.4
Yes4032.02738.09940.216637.6
AsthmaNo9374.44868.614058.328164.6
Yes3225.62231.410041.715435.4
AllergiesNo7257.64972.19840.821950.6
Yes5342.41927.914259.221449.4
DepressionNo8064.04866.713254.326059.1
Yes4536.02433.311145.718040.9
AnxietyNo10180.84970.013154.428164.5
Yes2419.22130.011045.615535.6
Mental health problemsNo10684.85983.118275.834779.6
Yes1915.21216.95824.28920.4
Learning disabilitiesNo9397.96693.012788.228692.3
Yes22.157.01711.8247.7
Physical disabilitiesNo8892.66287.312083.927087.4
Yes77.4912.72316.13912.6
 CancerNo7761.13041.714460.025157.3
Yes4938.94258.39640.018742.7
ME/CFSNo11794.46797.121489.939892.3
Yes75.722.92410.1337.7
MSNo9499.06085.713797.929195.4
Yes11.11014.332.1144.6
Other neurological problemsNo8791.66490.111783.026887.3
Yes88.479.92417.03912.7
TuberculosisNo9397.96188.413695.829094.8
Yes22.1811.664.2165.2
Any other health problemsNo9173.44868.610745.724657.5
Yes3326.62231.412754.318242.5
Lifestyle  medianIQRmedianIQRmedianIQR  
Alcohol consumptionCurrently (units/week)41 - 1020 - 900 - 2n/an/a
Alcohol consumptionPrior disease onset (units/week)n/an/a30 - 1020 - 7n/an/a
 (n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)(n)(%)
Smoking statusNever smoke8565.43040.515962.127459.6
 Ex-smoker3930.02635.16625.813128.5
Current smoker64.61824.33112.15512.0
Physical activity levelRather inactive/not active1914.679.5135.1398.5
Neither active nor inactive2317.71114.9239.05712.4
Very active/rather active8867.75675.721985.936379.1
Previous morbidityHigh blood pressureNo11890.86895.824095.242694.0
Yes129.234.2124.8276.0
Heart problemsNo12596.97098.624296.043796.7
Yes43.111.4104.0153.3
AsthmaNo11590.66691.718774.236881.6
Yes129.568.36525.88318.4
AllergiesNo6751.94967.114357.725957.6
Yes6248.12432.910542.319142.4
DepressionNo11386.95778.115762.132771.7
Yes1713.11621.99637.912928.3
AnxietyNo10076.95778.115360.231067.8
Yes3023.11621.910139.814732.2
High levels of stressNo7557.73650.710642.421748.1
Yes5542.33549.314457.623451.9
Frequent coughs/coldsNo12293.96288.615561.833975.2
Yes86.2811.49638.311224.8
Intolerance to alcoholic drinksNo12194.571100.021388.440592.1
Yes75.500.02811.6358.0
Intolerance to sugarNo12999.272100.023594.843696.9
Yes10.800.0135.2143.1
Other health problemsNo11189.56089.616681.833785.5
Yes1310.5710.53718.25714.5
Recent exposuresLived on a farmNo12696.96895.823894.143295.2
Yes43.134.2114.4184.0
Don't know00.000.041.640.9
Tick bitesNo7198.62596.27886.717492.6
Yes00.000.011.110.5
Don't know11.413.91112.2136.9
 Vaccines/immunisationsNo6793.11973.18088.916688.3
Yes56.9726.988.92010.6
Don't know00.000.022.221.1
Travelled overseasNo6953.13953.415059.325856.6
Yes6146.93142.58734.417939.3
Don't know00.034.1166.3194.2
FloodingNo12898.57398.725097.745198.0
Yes21.511.431.261.3
Don't know00.000.031.230.7
RadiationNo7198.62596.28291.117894.7
Yes11.413.944.463.2
 00.000.044.442.1
Carbon monoxide (CO)No12897.76889.521081.440687.3
Yes10.800.031.240.9
Don't know21.5810.54517.45511.8
PesticidesNo11992.35777.017468.235076.4
Yes21.622.7187.1224.8
Don't know86.21520.36324.78618.8
Any other chemicalsNo11891.55473.015862.233072.2
Yes64.734.1259.8347.4
Don't know53.91723.07128.09320.4
Had meningitisNo130100.07398.724796.545097.8
Yes00.011.420.830.7
Don't know00.000.072.771.5
Had any other serious infectionNo12898.56589.016767.936080.2
Yes21.568.26225.27015.6
Don't know00.022.7176.9194.2
 Had any head injuryNo129100.06589.022989.842392.6
Yes00.068.2166.3224.8
Don't know00.022.7103.9122.6
Had a major operationNo12899.26891.923592.243194.1
Yes10.868.1155.9224.8
Don't know00.000.052.051.1
Contraceptive pill (women only)No6752.83345.813955.423953.1
Yes1612.62331.96325.110222.7
Don't know32.400.041.671.6
Lived in a house with gas or oil appliancesNo2821.52432.95019.810222.4
Yes10278.54967.120179.835277.4
Don't know00.000.010.410.2
Lived in a house with a gas fireNo10077.54663.915361.029966.2
Yes2922.52636.19738.715233.6
Don't know00.000.010.410.2
BCG vaccinationNo1717.42432.92617.16720.7
Yes6364.34156.29763.820162.2
Don't know1818.4811.02919.15517.0
  1. MS – multiple sclerosis; ME/CFS - Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; HE – Higher education; HE/ PG - Higher education/post-graduation;
  2. aIndex of multiple deprivation (IDM) is the measure of relative deprivation for small areas in England (official measure). It is composed by the following indices: Income Deprivation (22.5%), Employment Deprivation (22.5%), Education, Skills and Training Deprivation (13.5%), Health Deprivation and Disability (13.5%), Crime (9.3%), Barriers to Housing and Services (9.3%), and Living Environment Deprivation (9.3%). IDM decile 1 refers to the most deprived area and decile 10 to the least deprived area (https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/464430/English_Index_of_Multiple_Deprivation_2015_-_Guidance.pdf)