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Table 2 Adjusted Average Differences in Later Life Neuropsychological Test Performance Associated with Mid-Life 25(OH) D Concentrations: the ARIC Study a

From: Mid-life serum Vitamin D concentrations were associated with incident dementia but not late-life neuropsychological performance in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Neuropsychological outcomes 25(OH) D (ng/mL) p-trend Per 1 SD decrement in 25(OH) D b
≥30 (Sufficient) 20- < 30 (Intermediate) < 20 (Deficient)
N 3046 5759 4234   13,039
Memory
 Delayed word recall test c
  Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.11 (− 0.22, − 0.01) − 0.06 (− 0.18, 0.07) 0.41 −0.01 (− 0.06, 0.03)
  Model 2 e 0 (reference) −0.10 (− 0.20, 0.01) −0.04 (− 0.17, 0.08) 0.58 − 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.04)
  Model 3 f 0 (reference) − 0.10 (− 0.21, 0.003) −0.06 (− 0.19, 0.07) 0.42 −0.01 (− 0.06, 0.03)
Logical memory I c
 Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.21 (− 0.61, 0.19) −0.18 (− 0.67, 0.32) 0.51 −0.05 (− 0.24, 0.14)
 Model 2 e 0 (reference) −0.22 (− 0.62, 0.18) −0.19 (− 0.68, 0.31) 0.48 −0.06 (− 0.25, 0.13)
 Model 3 f 0 (reference) −0.25 (− 0.65, 0.15) −0.27 (− 0.76, 0.22) 0.29 −0.09 (− 0.28, 0.10)
Logical memory II c
 Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.18 (− 0.56, 0.20) −0.21 (− 0.75, 0.33) 0.45 −0.04 (− 0.23, 0.16)
 Model 2 e 0 (reference) −0.18 (− 0.57, 0.20) −0.19 (− 0.73, 0.34) 0.49 − 0.03 (− 0.23, 0.17)
 Model 3 f 0 (reference) −0.20 (− 0.58, 0.19) −0.24 (− 0.76, 0.29) 0.38 −0.05 (− 0.25, 0.15)
Incidental learning symbol c
 Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.02 (− 0.11, 0.07) 0.08 (− 0.03, 0.20) 0.14 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.08)
 Model 2 e 0 (reference) − 0.01 (− 0.10, 0.08) 0.10 (− 0.02, 0.22) 0.08 0.04 (− 0.001, 0.09)
 Model 3 f 0 (reference) − 0.02 (− 0.11, 0.07) 0.07 (− 0.04, 0.19) 0.20 0.03 (− 0.01, 0.07)
Language and Verbal Fluency
 Word fluency c
  Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.32 (− 0.93, 0.28) 0.29 (− 0.47, 1.05) 0.40 0.17 (− 0.13, 0.46)
  Model 2 e 0 (reference) −0.21 (− 0.82, 0.40) 0.50 (− 0.26, 1.27) 0.17 0.25 (− 0.05, 0.55)
  Model 3 f 0 (reference) − 0.21 (− 0.83, 0.41) 0.48 (− 0.31, 1.26) 0.20 0.24 (− 0.08, 0.55)
Animal naming c
 Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.14 (− 0.39, 0.12) −0.07 (− 0.42, 0.28) 0.72 0.001 (− 0.13, 0.14)
 Model 2 e 0 (reference) −0.09 (− 0.35, 0.17) 0.03 (− 0.33, 0.38) 0.84 0.04 (− 0.10, 0.18)
 Model 3 f 0 (reference) − 0.10 (− 0.36, 0.16) 0.01 (− 0.34, 0.35) 0.94 0.03 (− 0.10, 0.16)
Boston naming test score c
 Model 1 d 0 (reference) −0.11 (− 0.38, 0.15) 0.05 (− 0.26, 0.37) 0.70 0.04 (− 0.08, 0.16)
 Model 2 e 0 (reference) − 0.11 (− 0.38, 0.15) 0.07 (− 0.25, 0.38) 0.62 0.05 (− 0.07, 0.16)
 Model 3 f 0 (reference) −0.09 (− 0.35, 0.17) 0.12 (− 0.19, 0.44) 0.39 0.07 (− 0.05, 0.19)
  1. a Results are presented as beta-coefficients (95% CI) derived from multivariable linear regression models. Sufficient 25(OH) D ≥ 30 ng/mL was the reference for the intermediate and deficient 25(OH) D categories. Data in bold text are statistically significant, P < .05
  2. b SD 25(OH) D = 8.4 ng/mL; To covert 25(OH) D from ng/mL to nmol/L, multiply by 2.496
  3. c A higher value indicates a more favorable performance/measure
  4. d Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, race/center, educational, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and APOE ε4 genotype
  5. e Model 2: Model 1 plus systolic blood pressure, use of hypertension medication, total and HDL cholesterol, use of cholesterol medications, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  6. f Model 3: Model 2 plus serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations