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Table 3 Adjusted Average Differences in Later Life Neuropsychological Test Performance Associated with Mid-Life 25(OH) D Concentrations: the ARIC Study a

From: Mid-life serum Vitamin D concentrations were associated with incident dementia but not late-life neuropsychological performance in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Neuropsychological outcomes 25(OH) D (ng/mL) p-trend Per 1 SD decrement in 25(OH) D b
≥30 (Sufficient) 20- < 30 (Intermediate) < 20 (Deficient)
N 3046 5759 4234   13,039
Processing Speed and Executive Function
Trail A c
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) 0.69 (− 0.88, 2.26) − 0.97 (− 3.01, 1.07) 0.31 − 0.57 (− 1.40, 0.26)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) 0.58 (− 1.00, 2.16) − 1.30 (− 3.33, 0.73) 0.17 − 0.69 (− 1.52, 0.13)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) 0.64 (− 0.92, 2.21) −1.09 (− 3.08, 0.89) 0.24 − 0.60 (− 1.42, 0.22)
Trail B c
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) − 0.19 (− 3.34, 2.96) −3.12 (− 6.92, 0.67) 0.09 −1.63 (− 3.11, − 0.16)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) − 0.68 (− 3.87, 2.52) −4.00 (− 7.83, − 0.17) 0.04 −1.98 (− 3.49, − 0.46)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) − 0.29 (− 3.43, 2.85) −2.94 (− 6.69, 0.80) 0.11 −1.55 (− 3.03, − 0.07)
Digit symbol substitution d
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) − 0.38 (− 0.88, 0.12) 0.23 (− 0.37, 0.84) 0.38 0.15 (− 0.09, 0.39)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) − 0.25 (− 0.75, 0.25) 0.47 (− 0.13, 1.08) 0.10 0.25 (0.01, 0.49)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) − 0.27 (− 0.77, 0.23) 0.39 (− 0.22, 1.00) 0.17 0.21 (− 0.03, 0.45)
Digit span backwards d
 Model 1 e 0 (reference) 0.03 (− 0.08, 0.13) 0.09 (− 0.03, 0.21) 0.13 0.05 (0.01, 0.09)
 Model 2 f 0 (reference) 0.04 (− 0.07, 0.14) 0.10 (− 0.02, 0.22) 0.09 0.05 (0.01, 0.09)
 Model 3 g 0 (reference) 0.03 (− 0.08, 0.14) 0.10 (− 0.02, 0.22) 0.11 0.05 (0.01, 0.09)
  1. a Results are presented as beta-coefficients (95% CI) derived from multivariable linear regression models. Sufficient 25(OH) D ≥ 30 ng/mL was the reference for the intermediate and deficient 25(OH) D categories. Data in bold text are statistically significant, P < .05
  2. b SD 25(OH) D = 8.4 ng/mL; To covert 25(OH) D from ng/mL to nmol/L, multiply by 2.496
  3. cFor Trail A and Trail B: a lower value indicates a more favorable performance/measure
  4. d For digit symbol substitution and digit span backwards: a higher value indicates a more favorable performance/measure
  5. e Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, race/center, educational, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and APOE ε4 genotype
  6. f Model 2: Model 1 plus systolic blood pressure, use of hypertension medication, total and HDL cholesterol, use of cholesterol medications, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and estimated glomerular filtration rate
  7. g Model 3: Model 2 plus serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations