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Table 2 Overview of the main components and the progression of the interventions

From: The EXPANd trial: effects of exercise and exploring neuroplastic changes in people with Parkinson’s disease: a study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial


Main Components

Progression (blocks)



week 1–2


week 3–6


week 7–10


(intervention group)

➢ Sensory integration

➢ Anticipatory postural adjustments

➢ Motor agility

➢ Stability limits

Exercises with focus on movement quality, familiarization of the exercises and task-specific motor learning. Single task performance of exercises pertaining to each of the main components.

Increased level of difficulty of the exercises. Variation of the exercises within the components.

Introducing cognitive and motor dual tasks to increase the complexity of the exercises.

Complexity increased by task variation and combining exercises from all four main components, and by integrating simultaneous cognitive and motor dual tasks.


(control group)

➢ Voice intensity

➢ Articulatory precision

➢ Word retrieval

➢ Memory

Exercises with focus on breathing, phonation and articulation. Establishing increased vocal loudness while maintaining good voice quality

Increased level of difficulty of the exercises. Introducing memory games and associational tasks to increase cognitive load during exercises.

Complexity increased by increasing difficulty of memory games, incorporating more interaction between participants and by adding background noise.