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Table 3 Mental changes in the 663 older adults that were noticed by their family members

From: Discrepancy in the perception of symptoms of cognitive decline between older adults and their family members: results of the Toyama dementia survey

Hasegawa Dementia Scale score≤20 (a)21–24 (b)≥25 (c)Chi-squareAdjusted
(n = 80)(n = 78)(n = 505)testresidual
%%%P valueO < EE < O
Lacking vitality and feeling depressed10.05.12.0< 0.001ca
Loss of appetite7.56.43.00.074c 
Constantly experiencing negative thoughts11.39.04.60.028ca
Feeling restless11.33.81.6< 0.001ca
Feeling more moody in the mornings and less so in the evenings3.80.03.20.260  
Worrying about their health5.01.33.10.411  
Frequently consulting physicians and successively changing medical institutions0.00.01.20.388  
Being unable to sleep at night8.87.75.30.398  
Assuming the intentions of strangers to be bad and being convinced that things that are not fact are true6.35.11.00.001ca
Seeing things that are not there and hearing voices10.02.60.4< 0.001ca
Becoming more forgetful38.814.11.0< 0.001ca,b
Being half awake at night making noise and moving about5.01.30.20.001ca
Sometimes confusing night and day17.55.10.8< 0.001ca
Occasionally getting lost when going out2.50.00.00.001ca
Becoming very stubborn and obstinate21.310.35.0< 0.001ca
Diminished consideration for others (selfishness)25.07.72.6< 0.001ca
Emotional instability17.55.12.2< 0.001ca
Preferring to stay home and being unwilling to meet other people12.57.71.8< 0.001ca
Losing motivation and interest in things25.05.12.2< 0.001ca
  1. O < E, the rate of the measured value is significantly lower than the rate of the expected value; E < O, the rate of the expected value is significantly higher than the rate of the measured value