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Table 2 Changes in cognitive and functional abilities by AT(N) biomarker profiles during 3 years of ChEI therapy

From: Cerebro-spinal fluid biomarker levels: phosphorylated tau (T) and total tau (N) as markers for rate of progression in Alzheimer’s disease

VariableA+ T– (N)–A+ T+ (N)–A+ T– (N)+A+ T+ (N)+p value
Response to ChEIs
 MMSE score, improved/unchanged patients after 6 months (%)629153540.141
 ADAS-cog score (0–70), improved/ unchanged patients after 6 months (%)621856550.077
 IADL score, improved/unchanged patients after 6 months (%)533625410.218
 PSMS score, improved/unchanged patients after 6 months (%)559163680.141
Rates of progressionMean (95% confidence interval)p value
 MMSE score, decline/year−1.7 (−3.1, −0.2)−1.4 (−3.0, 0.3)−1.1 (−2.0, −0.1)−2.9 (−4.1, − 1.8)0.361
 ADAS-cog score (0–70), decline/year−1.7 (−3.3, −0.2)−2.7 (−4.5, −1.0)−2.8 (−5.1, −0.4)−3.9 (−5.6, −2.1)0.286
 IADL score, decline/year−2.6 (−3.3, −1.9)−3.1 (−4.8, − 1.5)−2.8 (− 3.9, − 1.8)−4.2 (− 5.7, − 2.7)0.148
 PSMS score, decline/year−1.7 (−2.4, −0.9)−1.4 (−2.6, − 0.1)− 1.2 (− 1.9, − 0.5)−1.4 (− 2.2, − 0.7)0.891
 Length in the SATS, months22.9 (19.6, 26.3)27.5 (20.3, 34.7)31.1 (27.1, 35.0)23.8 (19.9, 27.7)0.081
  1. For clarity, clinical improvements for all scales have been tabulated as positive changes from the start of ChEI therapy (approximately time of AD diagnosis)
  2. Abbreviations: A+ abnormal CSF Aβ42; AD Alzheimer’s disease; ADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; ChEI cholinesterase inhibitor; IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale; MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination; (N)– normal CSF T-tau; (N)+ abnormal CSF T-tau; PSMS Physical Self-Maintenance Scale; SATS Swedish Alzheimer Treatment Study; T– normal CSF P-tau; T+ abnormal CSF P-tau