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Table 2 Distribution of potential risk factors in cases and controls enrolled in a case-control study of risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait

From: A matched case-control study of risk factors associated with multiple sclerosis in Kuwait

Characteristics MS patients
(N1 = 110)
Controls
(N2 = 110)
n1 (%) n2 (%)
BMI
  < 25 50 (50.0) 54 (52.4)
 25–29.9 28 (28.0) 28 (27.2)
  ≥ 30 22 (22.0) 21 (20.4)
Education level at MS diagnosis (≤ high school vs. > high school level) 29 (26.4) 19 (17.3)
Birth order (1st/2nd or more) 24 (21.8) 26 (23.6)
Parents’ relationship
 Unrelated 80 (72.7) 73 (66.4)
 First degree cousins 22 (20.0) 21 (19.1)
 Second degree cousins 8 (7.3) 16 (14.5)
Presence during Gulf war (yes/no) 59 (53.6) 71 (64.5)
Family history of MS (yes/no) 33 (30.0) 13 (11.8)
Tobacco smoking (yes/no) 18 (16.4) 12 (10.9)
Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (yes/no) 47 (42.7) 56 (50.9)
Regular passive smoking (yes/no) 67 (62.0) 69 (62.7)
Tonsillectomy before MS onset (yes/no) 10 (9.1) 9 (8.2)
Appendectomy before MS onset (yes/no) 9 (8.2) 3 (2.7)
Receiving Influenza vaccine before MS onset (yes/no) 18 (16.4) 32 (29.1)
Self-reported vitamin D deficiency (yes/no) 83 (75.5) 76 (69.1)