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Table 1 Specifications of studies entered into the meta-analysis

From: The impact of physical exercise on the fatigue symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, ReferencePlace of studyclinical form of the disease (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)type of exercisesample size Control groupsample size intervention groupMean ± SD of BeforeMean ± SD of AfterP-Value
Kargarfard, 2018, [15]IranProgressive
<5.5
Aquatic Exercise151743.10 ± 14.6032.80 ± 5.910.01
Pazokian, 2013, [18]IranProgressive
<5.5
Aerobic Exercise404042.95 ± 15.0243.1 ± 14.60.001
Pazokian, 2012, [19]IranProgressive
<5.5
Aerobic Stretching‌ Exercise404051.35 ± 12.8328.17 ± 10.320.001
Khodadadi, 2012, [20]Iranprogressive
4.26 ± 1.48
Frankel exercises15154.86 ± 1.183.20 ± 0.940.0001
Asadi zaker, 2010, [21]Iranprogressive
3.03 ± 1.63
Aerobic Stretching‌ Exercise15155.1 ± 1.11.80 ± 0.930.001
Shanazari, 2012, [22]Iranprogressive
<4.5
Aquatic Exercise191972.47 ± 5.9940.20 ± 8.300.05
Ebrahimi-1, 2013, [23]IranProgressive
2.6 ± 0.73
Resistance Exercise20203.98 ± 1.402.84 ± 1.200.15
Ebrahimi-2, 2013, [23]IranProgressive
2.65 ± 0.91
Endurance exercise20204.39 ± 1.563.64 ± 1.710.48
Khademolsharieh, 2018, [24]IranProgressive
3.4 ± 0.5
Endurance- Resistance exercise101032.91 ± 4.8726.25 ± 7.570.001
Razavi, 2015, [25]IranProgressive
2.04 ± 1.01
Aqua Gymnastic Exercises24244.68 ± 1.473.23 ± 1.510.017
Shaeifi, 2013, [26]IranProgressive
1–5
Endurance- Resistance exercise353531.07 ± 5.1723.40 ± 5.180.06
Abasi, 2016, [27]IranProgressive
<4.5
Rehabilitation exercises484864.23 ± 3.330.05 ± 3.10.05
Moradi, 2015, [28]IranProgressive
3.57 ± 0.85
8 weeks of resistance training15153.23 ± 2.502.23 ± 1.210.029
Negaresh, 2019, [29]IranProgressive
1.8 ± 0.8
short-term interval exercise14173.40 ± 0.503.20 ± 0.700.06
Ghaffari, 2008, [30]IranProgressive
<5.5
Aquatic Exercise25255.48 ± 0.712.56 ± 0.650.001
Eftekhari, 2008, [31]IranProgressive
2.1 ± 0.4
Endurance exercise242410.80 ± 3.909.00 ± 4.500.015
Kooshiar, 2015, [32]IranProgressive
<6
Aerobic Exercise202041.75 ± 8.3335.06 ± 12.200.001
Ghajarzadeh, 2013, [33]IranProgressive
5.3 ± 2.1
Aerobic Exercise757529.70 ± 17.0013.80 ± 14.100.001
Moghadas, 2017, [34]IranProgressive
2.17 ± 0.92
Neurofeedback Training1085.27 ± 0.235.21 ± 0.210.104
Belochi, 2012, [35]IranProgressive
<5.5
Cauthorn and Coxy exercises15153.65 ± 2.542.23 ± 1.210.842
McCullagh, 2008, [16]IrelandProgressive
2–5
Long-term exercise121220.0 ± 2.53.0 ± 0.80.02
Mostert, 2002, [17]SwissProgressive
<4.5
4 weeks of aerobic exercise24125.10 ± 1.804.40 ± 1.90
Surakka-1, 2004, [36]FinlandProgressive
<6
aerobic exercise313027.30 ± 2.2026.30 ± 2.00
Surakka-2, 2004, [36]FinlandProgressive
<6
strength exercise171724.80 ± 3.1023.50 ± 2.90
Learmonth, 2012, [37]EnglandProgressive
6.14 ± 0.36
12-week group exercise12205.70 ± 1.205.30 ± 1.700.108
Kileff, 2005, [38]EnglandProgressive
<6
aerobic exercise151550.29 ± 6.4240.57 ± 8.920.058
Oken, 2004, [39]USAaerobic exercise151513.20 ± 4.0012.10 ± 1.800.01
White, 2004, [40]USAProgressive
1–5
resistance training5532.00 ± 18.0025.00 ± 8.000.04
Vore, 2011, [41]USAProgressive
2–5
10-week group exercise111126.90 ± 5.8521.82 ± 8.88
Petajan, 1996, [42]USAProgressive
3.8 ± 0.3
aerobic exercise252148.70 ± 2.0044.40 ± 1.80.05
Mathiowetz, 2001, [43]USA13-week group exercise545422.00 ± 7.7017.30 ± 8.20