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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients

From: Predictors of acute intracranial hemorrhage and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma following burr hole drainage

VariablesNo. (%)
Total patients448
Gender
 Male354 (79.0)
 Female94 (21.0)
Age, mean ± SD, years68.1 ± 12.4 (14.0–98.0)
Head trauma event295 (65.8)
Medical history
 Hypertension172 (38.4)
 Diabetes59 (13.2)
 Heart disease47 (10.5)
 Cerebral infarction28 (6.3)
 Renal failure dialysis3 (0.7)
Antiplatelet or anticoagulant use
 Antiplatelet use32 (7.1)
 Anticoagulant use15 (3.3)
Preoperative clinical symptoms
 Headache202 (45.1)
 Dizziness139 (31.0)
 Motor weakness253 (56.5)
 Nausea/vomiting31 (6.9)
 Speech impairment17 (3.8)
 Unsteady gait8 (1.8)
 Incontinence11 (2.5)
 Memory impairment14 (3.1)
GCS at admission
 15385 (85.9)
 3–1463 (14.1)
Operation side
 Unilateral hematoma294 (65.6)
 Bilateral hematoma154 (34.4)
 Bilateral evacuated unilaterally54 (12.1)
 Bilateral evacuated bilaterally100 (22.3)
Radiological characteristics
 Midline shift
   < 10 mm292 (65.2)
   ≥ 10 mm156 (34.8)
 Preoperative maximal thickness
   < 20 mm99 (22.1)
   ≥ 20 mm349 (77.9)
 Hematoma density
  Hyperdense133 (29.7)
  Hypodense71 (15.8)
  Mixed density210 (46.9)
  Iso-dense34 (7.6)
Treatment
 Atorvastatin perioperatively171 (38.2)
 Anesthesia
  Local201 (44.9)
  General247 (55.1)
 Intraoperative irrigation
  Irrigation376 (83.9)
  Non-irrigation72 (16.1)
  Injection urokinase after operation12 (2.7)
 Duration of drainage, day
  163 (14.1)
  2306 (68.3)
   ≥ 379 (17.6)
Outcomes and complications
 Clinical symptoms changes at discharge
  Improvement384 (85.7)
  Unchanged19 (4.3)
  Deterioration45 (10.0)
GCS at discharge
  Improvement62 (13.8)
  Unchanged373 (83.3)
  Deterioration13 (2.9)
  Complications122 (27.2)
  Fever69 (15.4)
  Irritability19 (4.3)
  Poor wound healing1 (0.2)
  Seizure2 (0.4)
  Deep vein thrombosis1 (0.2)
  AIH23 (5.1)
  CIH7 (1.6)
  Recurrence60 (13.4)
  Mortality1 (0.2)
Hospitalization time, mean ± SD, days14.0 ± 5.5 (3.0–42.0)
  1. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, AIH Acute intracranial hemorrhage, CIH Chronic intracranial hemorrhage