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Table 2 Univariate analysis of factors for recurrence of CSDH

From: Predictors of acute intracranial hemorrhage and recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma following burr hole drainage

VariablesRecurrenceNo recurrenceP Value
Patients60(%)388(%) 
Gender0.057
 Male53 (88.3)301 (77.6) 
 Female7 (11.7)87 (22.4) 
Age (years)0.576
  < 7030 (50)209 (53.9) 
  ≥ 7030 (50)179 (46.1) 
Head trauma event35 (58.3)260 (67.0)0.187
Medical history
 Hypertension25 (41.7)147 (37.9)0.575
 Diabetes10 (16.7)49 (12.6)0.389
 Heart disease10 (16.7)37 (9.5)0.093
 Cerebral infarction5 (8.3)23 (5.9)0.404
 Renal failure dialysis1 (1.7)2 (0.5)0.351
Antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs
 Antiplatelet drugs6 (10.0)26 (6.7)0.415
 Anticoagulant drugs5 (8.3)10 (2.6)0.038
The main symptoms
 Headache26 (43.3)176 (45.4)0.769
 Dizziness17 (28.3)122 (31.4)0.628
 Motor weakness32 (53.3)221 (57.0)0.598
 Nausea/vomiting2 (3.3)29 (7.5)0.408
 Speech impairment3 (5.0)14 (3.6)0.486
 Unsteady gait2 (3.3)6 (1.5)0.292
 Incontinence1 (1.7)10 (2.6)1.000
 Memory decline1 (1.7)13 (3.4)0.704
GCS at admission0.566
 1553 (88.3)332 (85.6) 
 3–147 (11.7)56 (14.4) 
Operation sideP < 0.001
 Unilateral hematoma26 (43.3)270 (69.6) 
 Bilateral hematoma34 (56.7)118 (30.4) 
Radiological characteristics
 Midline shift0.975
   < 10 mm39 (65.0)253 (65.2) 
   ≥ 10 mm21 (35.0)135 (34.8) 
Preoperative maximal thickness0.154
   < 20 mm9 (15.0)90 (23.2) 
   ≥ 20 mm51 (85.0)298 (76.8) 
 Hematoma density0.009
  Hyper-dense29 (48.3)104 (26.8) 
  Hypo-dense7 (11.7)64 (16.5) 
  Mixed density21 (35.0)189 (48.7) 
  Iso-dense3 (5.0)31 (8.0) 
Treatment
 Atorvastatin perioperatively31 (51.7)140 (36.1)0.021
 Anesthesia0.982
  Local27 (45.0)174 (44.8) 
  General33 (55.0)214 (55.2) 
  Intraoperative irrigation49 (81.7)327 (84.3)0.608
  Injection urokinase after operation3 (5.0)9 (2.3)0.208
 Duration of drainage, day0.842
  19 (15.0)54 (14.0) 
  242 (70.0)264 (68.0) 
   ≥ 39 (15.0)70 (18.0) 
Complications
 Fever5 (8.3)64 (16.5)0.103
 Irritability4 (6.7)15 (3.9)0.303
 Poor wound healing1 (1.7)0
 Seizure1 (1.7)1 (0.26)0.250
 Deep vein thrombosis01 (0.26)
 AIH023 (5.9)
Hospitalization time, mean ± SD, days14.0 ± 6.414.0 ± 5.40.905
  1. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, AIH Acute intracranial hemorrhage