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Table 2 Comparison of patients with different clinical subtypes of PLAN

From: Genotype-phenotype correlations of adult-onset PLA2G6-associated Neurodegeneration: case series and literature review

CharacteristicsDystonia-Parkinsonism
N = 14
Early-onset PD
N = 17
HSP
N = 3
Ataxia
N = 1
P-value
Age at onset, years21.7 ± 3.927.2 ± 5.146.0 ± 23.5300.10
Age at examination, years32.5 ± 4.933.7 ± 8.1N.A.310.26
Sex, male5 (35.7%)10 (58.8%)1 (33.3%)00.38
Main symptoms and signs
 Parkinsonism14 (100.0%)17 (100.0%)001.00
 Dystonia13 (92.8%)2 (11.8%)00< 0.001**
 Pyramidal sign11 (78.6%)8 (47.1%)3 (100%)10.32
 Cognitive decline9 (64.3%)10 (58.8%)1 (33.3%)00.91
 Depression/Anxiety4 (28.6%)7 (41.2%)1 (33.3%)10.78
 Psychosis4 (28.6%)6 (35.3%)000.93
Brain MRI findings
 Cortical atrophy9 (64.3%)8 (47.1%)00 
 Cerebellar atrophy3 (21.4%)1 (5.9%)1 (33.3%)10.03*
 Hypo-intensity in GP1 (7.1%)1 (5.9%)000.98
  1. Data are the number (%) or the mean ± SD. PLAN, Phospholipase A2 group VI-associated neurodegeneration; PD, Parkinson’s disease; HSP, hereditary spastic paraparesis; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; GP, globus pallidus. **P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. P-values that compare individual characteristics between groups with dystonia-parkinsonism and early-onset PD were evaluated with an analysis of variance. Variables without a normal distribution were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, the non-parametric equivalent of the independent sample t-test