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Table 2 Secondary efficacy outcomes

From: Efficacy of andrographolide in not active progressive multiple sclerosis: a prospective exploratory double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

EDSS Placebo N = 17 AP N = 20 p
Baseline median EDSS 6.0 (2.5–7.0) 6.0 (3.5–7.5) 0.92
Final median EDSS 6.5 (2.0–8.0) 6.0 (3.0–7.5) 0.24
Baseline mean EDSS 5.7 ± 1.3 5.8 ± 1.1 0.93
Final mean EDSS 6.2 ± 1.3 5.8 ± 1.3 0.43
Mean EDSS change + 0.35 (95% CI, −0.75 - 0.05) −0.03 (95% CI, − 0.4 - 0.4) 0.04a
Other efficacy outcomes PlaceboN = 17 APN = 20 p
mean change (95% CI) mean change (95% CI)
SDMT 0.49 (0.05–0.92) 0.23 (−0.13–0.59) 0.36
PASAT 0.28 (−0.57–1.09) 0.22 (− 0.44–0.89) 0.92
9HPT 0.01 (−2.18–2.16) −1.55 (−3.65–0.54) 0.32
T25FW 1.58 (−5.39–8.56) −1.19 (−7.15–4.77) 0.56
MSFC 0.05 (−0.19–0.29) 0.11 (− 0.62–0.29) 0.69
RNFL −9.2 (− 12.9–5.5) −7.3 (− 11.2–3.3) 0.47
  1. aAdjusted model (baseline EDSS as a covariate); the mean difference between AP and placebo was 0.63
  2. SMDT: symbol digit modalities test; PASAT Paced auditory serial addition test; 9HPT Nine-hole peg test; T25FW Timed 25-ft walk; MSFC Multiple sclerosis functional composite; RNFL Retinal nerve fibre layer. The results from GLM were adjusted for baseline MSFC