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Table 1 Selected characteristics of patients with lead encephalopathy

From: Encephalopathy following ingestion of Lead-contaminated opium; magnetic resonance imaging findings

NoAge range (Year)GenderBLL (μg/dL)Hgb (mg/dL)Signs & SymptomsEEG InterpretationChelating agentsMRI finding
150–60M5012.8Seizure, abdominal pain, agitation, constipationmild diffuse encephalopathyNoabnormal
270–80M2008.7Delirium, abdominal pain, weakness, constipationnot doneBAL + EDTAabnormal
330–40M687.6Abdominal pain, constipation, confusion, seizuremoderate diffuse encephalopathyBAL + EDTAabnormal
440–50M958.1Abdominal pain, weakness, myalgia, confusion, seizure, insomnia, loss of appetite, dysarthria, gait disturbance, steering, delirium, seizure, constipation, ventricular tachycardia and cardiac arrest before arrivaldiffuse alpha activityBAL + EDTAnormal
540–50M10110.2Consciousness fluctuation, delirium, hallucination, disorientation, upper motor neuron weaknessmoderate diffuse encephalopathy (cortical dysfunction)BAL + EDTAnormal
650–60M1078.4Repeated seizure, weakness, agitation, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, constipationmild diffuse cortical dysfunctionBAL + EDTAnormal
750–60M1057.6Abdominal pain, confusion, disorientation to time, constipationNormalBAL + EDTAnormal
840–50M11010.6Agitation, seizure, deliriumnot doneBAL + EDTAnormal
950–60F> 659.1Seizure, delirium, severe agitation, nausea and vomiting, confusionmild diffuse encephalopathyBAL + EDTAnormal