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Table 2 Predictors of emergence from disorder of consciousness in univariate analysis

From: Neurobehavioral recovery in patients who emerged from prolonged disorder of consciousness: a retrospective study

Variable EDoC (n = 23) PDoC (n = 27) p-value HR (95% CI) p- value
Sex
 Male 16 (50) 16 (50) 0.645 reference  
 Female 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1)   0.44 (0.17, 1.15) 0.093
Age
 Median (IQR) 46 (34, 62.5) 46 (20, 60) 0.326 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 0.115
Level of consciousness
 VS/UWS 4 (16) 21 (84) < 0.001 reference  
 MCS 19 (76) 6 (24)   4.49 (1.52, 13.27) 0.007
Total CRS-R score
 Median (IQR) 13 (10,16) 5 (4, 7.5) < 0.001 1.16 (1.06, 1.28) 0.002
  ≤ 6* 1 (5.6) 17 (94.4)   reference  
  > 6 22 (68.8) 10 (31.2)   10.02 (1.34, 74.61) 0.028
Etiology
 TBI 14 (48.3) 15 (51.7) 0.927 reference  
 Non-TBI 9 (42.9) 12 (57.1)   0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.61
Injury Type (n = 46)
 Extra-axial hemorrhage 7 (87.5) 1 (12.5) 0.014 reference  
 Intra-axial lesion 13 (34.2) 25 (65.8)   0.09 (0.03, 0.24) < 0.001
Lag Time (days)
 Median (IQR) 133 (86, 212.5) 222 (126, 443.5) 0.048 0.99 (0.98, 0.99) < 0.001
  ≤ 528* 21 (48.8) 22 (51.2)   reference  
  > 528 2 (28.6) 5 (71.4)   0.10 (0.01, 0.78) 0.028
Hydrocephalus
 Present 11 (40.7) 16 (59.3) 0.6 reference  
 Absent 12 (52.2) 11 (47.8)   1.77 (0.78, 4.06) 0.174
VP shunt
 Present 8 (50) 8 (50) 0.932 reference  
 Absent 15 (44.1) 19 (55.9)   1.28 (0.54, 3.04) 0.573
Cranioplasty
 Present 10 (43.5) 13 (56.5) 0.964 reference  
 Absent 13 (48.1) 14 (51.9)   1.69 (0.73, 3.91) 0.218
Anticonvulsants
 Continued 15 (45.5) 18 (54.5) > 0.999 reference  
 Discontinued/not taking 8 (47.1) 9 (52.9)   1.19 (0.5, 2.86) 0.694
Education (n = 19)
  < 12 yrs 3 (25) 9 (75) 0.156 reference  
  ≥ 12 yrs 20 (54.1) 17 (45.9)   1.95 (0.58, 6.6) 0.282
  1. Values are presented as median (IQR) or number (%)
  2. CRS-R JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, VS/UWS vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, MCS minimally conscious state, EDoC emergence from disorder of consciousness, PDoC prolonged disorder of consciousness, TBI traumatic brain injury, HR hazard ratio
  3. *The optimal cutoff values of each variable were determined by maximally selected log-rank statistics
  4. P-value for the difference was determined by chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, the Wilcoxon rank-sum tests
  5. Hazard ratio and p-value were calculated by univariate Cox proportional hazards regression