Skip to main content

Table 2 Procedural characteristics at the time of tracheostomy

From: Severe pain-related adverse events of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy performed by a neurointensivist compared with conventional surgical tracheostomy in neurocritically ill patients

 PDT performed by a neurointensivist (n = 71)Conventional surgical method (n = 85)P value
Reason for tracheostomy — No. of patients (%)  0.853
 Difficult ventilator weaning or prolonged intubation33 (46.5)34 (40.0) 
 Reduction of sedative15 (21.1)22 (25.9) 
 Airway protection or prevent the risk of aspiration15 (21.1)21 (24.7) 
 Airway toilet5 (7.0)4 (4.7) 
 Difficult airway3 (4.2)4 (4.7) 
Premedication — No. of patients (%)
 Midazolam44 (62.0)65 (76.5)0.049
 Cisatracurium59 (83.1)2 (2.4)< 0.001
 Fentanyl55 (77.5)2 (2.4)< 0.001
 Pethidine15 (21.1)29 (34.1)0.106
 Propofol15 (21.1)2 (2.4)0.001
 Vecuronium11 (15.5)2 (2.4)0.008
 Remifentanil7 (9.9)4 (4.7)0.348
 Succinylcholine3 (4.2)16 (18.8)0.011
 Other5 (7.0)8 (9.4)0.808
Anticoagulation — No. of patients (%)0 (0.0)1 (1.2)0.999
Use of antiplatelet agent — No. of patients (%)5 (7.0)1 (1.2)0.093
GCS on procedure — mean ± SD8.6 ± 3.78.3 ± 3.50.653
Use of renal replacement therapy — No. of patients (%)3 (4.2)3 (3.5)0.999
Invasive ICP monitoring — No. of patients (%)20 (28.2)25 (29.4)0.865
Duration of mechanical ventilation before tracheostomy (days) — mean ± SD8.9 ± 5.88.2 ± 5.80.406
Inserted site — No. of patients (%)  0.045
 1st tracheal membrane16 (22.5)35 (41.2) 
 2nd tracheal membrane39 (54.9)34 (40.0) 
 3rd tracheal membrane16 (22.5)16 (18.8) 
Internal diameter of T-cannula (mm) — No. of patients (%)  < 0.001
 6.00 (0)1 (1.2) 
 7.01 (1.4)22 (25.9) 
 7.535 (49.3)35 (41.2) 
 8.033 (46.5)24 (28.2) 
 Adjustable flange2 (2.8)3 (3.5) 
Lab results on the day of tracheostomy — mean ± SD
 Platelet count (× 103/μl)252.2 ± 111.6266.1 ± 107.00.440
 PT (INR)1.0 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.10.461
 aPTT (sec)38.9 ± 9.537.6 ± 6.40.330
Ventilator setting — mean ± SD
 FiO2 (%)39.9 ± 18.636.0 ± 7.00.094
 PEEP (cmH2O)5.1 ± 0.84.9 ± 1.80.315
Vasopressor requirement — No. of patients (%)11 (15.5)13 (15.3)0.973
  1. PDT Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, SD standard deviation, ICP intracranial pressure, INR international normalized ratio, aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time, FiO2 Fraction of inspired oxygen, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure