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Table 3 Difference in cognitive performancea between treatmentb group and control group during follow-up: linear mixed model analyses

From: Pharmacological treatment of increased vascular risk and cognitive performance in middle-aged and old persons: six-year observational longitudinal study

 Cognitive performance of treatment group as compared to control group (estimated mean difference)c
Total study population (n = 1685)Matched sample 1:1 (n = 478)d
Model 1eModel 2fModel 3gModel 4h
Mean95%CIP valueMean95%CIP valueMean95%CIP valueMean95% CIP value
First measurement−0.35− 0.46 to − 0.24< 0.0010.03−0.10 to 0.160.68−0.05− 0.20 to 0.100.53− 0.05−0.17 to 0.080.49
Second measurement−0.45−0.56 to − 0.34< 0.001−0.07− 0.21 to − 0.060.28−0.07− 0.22 to 0.080.36− 0.07−0.20 to 0.060.28
Third measurement−0.51−0.64 to − 0.39< 0.001−0.14− 0.28 to 0.000.06− 0.09−0.26 to 0.070.27−0.08− 0.23 to 0.070.29
  1. Abbreviations: 95%CI 95% confidence interval
  2. a Cognitive performance was measured as a composite score of two tests (z-score): the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) and the Visual Association Test (VAT) [20, 22]
  3. b Treatment group included persons who had pharmacological treatment of vascular risk factors for the first time at the first measurement of cognitive function
  4. c Estimated mean difference was calculated as mean cognitive performance of treatment group minus control group
  5. d The sample (N = 478) was matched on the following characteristics: age, gender, educational level and treatable vascular risk
  6. e Model 1 is unadjusted; − 2*log likelihood: 8851.36
  7. f Model 2 is adjusted for propensity score for treatment of vascular risk factors; − 2*log likelihood: 8752.82
  8. g Model 3 is unadjusted; − 2*log likelihood: 2521.53
  9. h Model 4 is adjusted for age, educational level, interaction age x measurement, treatable vascular risk; − 2*log likelihood: 2319.52