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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the 24 items of the WHOQOL-BREF measurement model (individuals with self-reported chronic headache residing in Austria, Austrian Health Interview Survey, 2013–2015, n = 963)

From: Assessment of quality of life in individuals with chronic headache. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF

Item numbera Item content Mean sd Skewness Kurtosis p-valueb
3. To what extent do you feel that physical pain prevents you from doing what you need to do?1 2.36 1.20 0.52 2.24 < 0.001
4. How much do you need any medical treatment to function in your daily life?1 2.07 1.26 0.90 2.55 < 0.001
5. How much do you enjoy life?1 3.60 0.88 −0.40 2.99 < 0.001
6. To what extent do you feel your life to be meaningful?1 4.03 0.96 −0.96 3.59 < 0.001
7. How well are you able to concentrate?2 3.72 0.84 −0.51 3.29 < 0.001
8. How safe do you feel in your daily life? 2 3.90 0.80 −0.68 3.90 < 0.001
9. How healthy is your physical environment? 2 3.93 0.83 −0.69 3.92 < 0.001
10. Do you have enough energy for everyday life?3 3.61 0.89 −0.32 2.80 < 0.001
11. Are you able to accept your bodily appearance?3 3.89 0.92 −0.69 3.41 < 0.001
12. Have you enough money to meet your needs?3 3.31 1.11 −0.24 2.40 < 0.001
13. How available to you is the information that you need in your day-to-day life?3 4.19 0.86 −0.93 3.44 < 0.001
14. To what extent do you have the opportunity for leisure activities?3 3.66 1.07 −0.38 2.35 < 0.001
15. How well are you able to get around?4 4.19 0.90 −0.98 3.46 < 0.001
16. How satisfied are you with your sleep?5 3.44 1.18 −0.50 2.32 < 0.001
17. How satisfied are you with your ability to perform your daily living activities?5 3.84 0.98 −0.85 3.31 < 0.001
18. How satisfied are you with your capacity for work?5 3.74 1.13 −0.91 3.07 < 0.001
19. How satisfied are you with yourself?5 3.86 0.95 −0.86 3.45 < 0.001
20. How satisfied are you with your personal relationships?5 4.09 0.96 −1.14 4.12 < 0.001
21. How satisfied are you with your sex life?5 3.56 1.09 −0.71 2.98 < 0.001
22. How satisfied are you with the support you get from your friends?5 3.90 0.93 −1.03 4.27 < 0.001
23. How satisfied are you with the conditions of your living place?5 4.18 0.93 −1.23 4.31 < 0.001
24. How satisfied are you with your access to health services?5 3.98 0.89 −1.06 4.38 < 0.001
25. How satisfied are you with your transport?5 3.87 0.99 −0.93 3.66 < 0.001
26. How often do you have negative feelings such as blue mood, despair, anxiety, depression?6 2.63 1.00 0.32 2.55 < 0.001
  1. Note.aThe numbering is in accordance with the item sequence of the WHOQOL-BREF, of which only items 3 to 26 are part of the measurement model (see Methods section). bp-value from D’Agostino and Pearson’s chi-square omnibus test for normality. Response format: 1″Not at all” to “An extreme amount”; 2″Not at all” to “Extremely”; 3″Not at all” to “Completely”; 4“Very poor” to “Very good”; 5“Very dissatisfied” to “Very satisfied”; 6″Never” to “always”