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Table 2 Proprioceptive performance and fine motor skills: comparison between people with Parkinson’s disease and controls

From: LSVT-BIG therapy in Parkinson’s disease: physiological evidence for proprioceptive recalibration

  PwPD Controls p-value
LED test [°] w/o dt 4.3 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 0.8 < 0.001a
with dt 4.7 ± 2.2 3.0 ± 1.6 0.006a
ARROW test [°] w/o dt 12.7 ± 3.5 6.5 ± 2.4 < 0.001a
with dt 12.5 ± 4.4 5.9 ± 3.3 < 0.001a
NHPT [s] 25.4 ± 4.0 20.1 ± 2.7 < 0.001a
SPIRAL test, time [s] 38.2 ± 15.9 28.1 ± 6.2 0.011
SPIRAL test, FOS 1.40 ± 1.0 1.15 ± 0.4 0.754
ELEL test, speed [mm/s] 8.2 ± 4.7 9.5 ± 3.2 0.107
ELEL test, amplitude [cm] 1.23 ± 0.5 1.34 ± 0.4 0.458
ELEL test, width [cm] 1.07 ± 0.6 1.35 ± 0.4 0.011
  1. PwPD Persons with Parkinson’s disease, dt dual task condition, NHPT nine-hole-peg test, FOS First Order Smoothness
  2. a significant after Bonferroni-Holm correction