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Table 1 Summary of characteristics of the included studies

From: Intraoperative lumbar drainage can prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage during transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, y Country Research institution Type Sample size Gender distribution male/female Mean age, y Outcome LD Protocol
Jonathan 2018 [11] India a private, minority-run medical school, hospital and research institute RCT 60 LD 17/13
no LD 14/16
LD 36.7 ± 12.4
no LD 41.8 ± 11.4
Intraoperative CSF leakage:
LD 1/30; no LD 14/30
Postoperative CSF leakage:
LD 0/30; no LD 1/30
30 ml CSF at first, then intraoperative drained if necessary, removed immediately after surgery, or kept draining for 5 days if a CSF leakage happened.
Liu 2020 [12] China a third-grade class-A hospital cohort study 189 LD 61/58
no LD 38/32
LD 45.5 ± 17.5
no LD 47.8 ± 15.9
Intraoperative CSF leakage:
LD 12/119; no LD 22/70
Postoperative CSF leakage:
LD 4/119; no LD 8/70
10–20 ml CSF at each time, removed immediately after surgery, or kept draining 150 ml CSF per day for 3–5 days if a CSF leakage happened.
Mehta 2012 [13] America an academic health care center associated with the University of Virginia cohort study 158 LD 27/17
no LD 46/68
LD 55 ± 15
no LD 47 ± 15
Intraoperative CSF leakage:
LD 2/44; no LD 47/114
Postoperative CSF leakage:
LD 2/44; no LD 6/114
20 ml CSF at each time for a total of 20–60 ml CSF, removed immediately after surgery.
Sade 2006 [14] Canada an acute-care teaching hospital affiliated with McGill University cohort study 85 Not clear Not clear Intraoperative CSF leakage:
LD 12/32; no LD 22/53
Infuse 5–25 ml saline, then drained same amount of CSF.
Alharbi 2018 [15] Saudi Arabia A tertiary referral hospital cohort study 186 87/99 50.3 ± 16.1 Postoperative CSF leakage:
LD 1/51; no LD 7/135
Drained for 48 h, then removed.