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Table 2 Demography details of the studies

From: The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on insomnia and sleep quality: A systematic review

Rows Name and year country Study type population No. of participants intervention group,
Mean age (SD),
Female percent
Type of intervention,
Mode of delivery,
Sessions duration
No. of participants comparator,
Mean age (SD),
Female percent
Measures taken in the comparison group Measurement criteria and tools Follow up duration Summary of outcome Quality rate of study
1 Clarke, S. P.
2017 [27]
England Pilot randomized controlled trial Hip and knee osteoarthritis 16,
66 (7.3),
75%
ACT,
Groups of 4 to 6 people,
6 sessions 90 min per sessions,
6 week
15,
67 (10.7),
none Sleep and well-being (ICOAP) 2 and 4 month follow up The average score of sleep and well-being decreased slightly after two months of follow-up, which was not statistically significant. This score decreased again after a 4-month follow-up period, which was statistically significant. During this time, there was no change in the mean score of the control group. 26
2 Craner, J. R.
2020
[28]
America Treatment outcome study Chronic pain 137,
48.84 (16.31),
78.8%
ACT+ other treatment,
10 sessions,
2–4 h,
Almost 10 week,2 or 3 day per week
Insomnia (ISI) The average score of insomnia decreased after treatment, and it was found that this treatment had a significant effect on improving insomnia, which was also statistically significant. 19
3 Farhang, Maryam
.2017
[29]
India quasi-experimental clinical trial Mental disorder patient 11,
33.54 (8.92),
All women
ACT,
8 sessions, 75 min per session, one month
11,
32.45 (11.3),
All women
Normal drug treatment Anxiety and insomnia (GHQ) The average score of anxiety and insomnia decreased during treatment which shows improvments;
This decrease was statistically significant. The score of the control group did not change significantly.
18
4 Herbert, M. S.
2017
[30]
America Randomized Non-Inferiority clinical Trial Chronic pain 128,
50 (13),
18%
In person: 65 individual,
Video-teleconference:63 individual
ACT and normal pain tratment,
In person, Video-teleconference,
8 session,
60 min
8 week,
Sleep quality (PSQI) 3 and 6 month follow up The mean score of sleep quality changed slightly and was not observed in any of the modified intervention methods. The observed small changes were not statistically significant. 28
5 Hesser, Hugo.2012
[26]
Sweden Randomized contorted trial Tinnitus 35,
50.1 (16.4),
49.2%
ACT self-help internet delivered
(online ACT),
8 session,
120 min
8 week
1:Control group(32),
48.4 (14.2),
43.8%
2:CBT(32)
48.8 (13.4)
43.8%
1: None
2:CBT self-help internet delivered,
Face to face, 8 session,
120 min
8 week
Insomnia (insomnia severity index) 1 year follow up The mean score of insomnia was reduced equally by CBT and ACT. However, follow-up after one year showed that the severity of insomnia in the ACT treatment method was almost higher than the initial state and the sleep intensity in CBT was almost back to normal.
The control group also showed a slight decrease in the severity of insomnia during the 2 months of treatment.
25
6 Jacobsen, Henrik Børsting.
2017
[31]
Norway pre-post design Chronic fatigue 140,
43.9 (9),
80.7%
ACT,
Groups and individual
8sessions,
150 min,
17 days
Insomnia (ISI) A decrease in the mean score of the insomnia severity after treatment was observed, which was statistically significant. 21
7 Kallestad, H.
2015
[32]
Norway Trial,
repeated measures treatment
Chronic fatigue 122,
44 (8.9),
80.3%
ACT,
Groups and individual
7sessions,
17 days,
Insomnia (ISI) The mean score of insomnia decreased significantly after the intervention, which was statistically significant. 19
8 Khazaie, H.
2019
[21]
Iran quasi-experimental clinical trial Chronic Insomnia 12,
40.5 (8.36),
58.3%
ACT,
Individual
8 sessions,
60 min,
8 week
Sleep quality (PSQI) 3 month follow up The average score of sleep quality after treatment and following a 3-month follow-up was decreased, which indicates the positive effect of ACT on sleep qauality. 20
9 Lang, A. J. 2017
[33]
America Randomized controlled trial Veterans with chronic pain 80,
34.5 (7.9),
19.3%
ACT,
individual sessions,
12 sessions,
60 min
80,
34.0 (8.1),
21.2%
present-centered therapy
(PCT),
12sessions,
60 min,
Insomnia (ISI) 3,6,9 and 12 month follow up The mean score for insomnia severity was decreased significantly, after ACT treatment, and this was statistically significant. However, PCT did not have such an effect on improving insomnia. 26
10 Mosher, C. E. 2019 [34] America pilot randomized trial examined Lung cancer
AND caregivers
50,
63.20 (11.27),
60%
ACT telephone based,
6 sessions,
50 min,
6 week
50,
62 (13.13),
64%
Education/Support,
other similar psychological intervention,
supportive listening and directing,
6 sessions
Sleep disturbance (PROMIS)4 Item The mean score of insomnia did not change much following the intervention. The analysis of the Group X time effect did not show such a change. Moreover, the effect of other psychological interventions on sleep disorder was reported higher than ACT. 26
11 Mosher, C. E. 2018 [35] America pilot randomized trial examined Metastatic breast cancer 23,
59.30
(11.95),
All women
[19]
ACT telephone based,
6sessions,
50–60
Minutes,
6 week.
24,
53.29 (10.93),
Education/Support,
6 sessions
All women
Sleep-related impairment (PROMIS)8 item,
Sleep disturbance (PROMIS) 4 item
8 AND 12 week follow up The ACT intrvention group showed little improvement in sleeplessness after 8 and 12 weeks of follow-up, however, this was not statistically significant. 27
12 Päivi, Lappalainen.2019 [36] Finland randomized controlled trial insomnia 43,
56.05 (11.05),
74.4%
ACT Internet-delivered self-help,
6 sessions,
6 week
40,
50.78 (15.26),
52.5%
Control Sleep quality (BNSQ),
Insomnia (ISI),
Sleeping difficulties (ESS),
Recognize insomnia from normal sleep (DBAS)
6 month follow up The intervention had a positive and significant effect on improving sleep disorder, and sleep quality in patients with chronic insomnia. 25
13 Simister, H. D. 2018 [37] Canada randomized controlled trial Fibromyalgia 34 (online ACT) + treatment as usual (TAU),
7 sessions
2 month
33 TAU, Sleep quality (PSQI) 3 month follow up ACT was effective in improving sleep quality during treatment, however decreased during follow-up. This effect was not statistically significant. 26
14 Vethe, Daniel. 2018
[38]
Norway randomized controlled trial Chronic fatigue 89,
61 (9),
85.4%
ACT,
Individual and group,
7 h per day,
17 days
Insomnia (ISI) 12 month follow up The mean score of insomnia decreased significantly during the follow-up period, which was statistically significant. 25
15 Wells-Di Gregorio, S. M. 2019
[39]
America Pilot randomized controlled trial Advanced cancer 17,
55.59 (7.25),
76%
CBT-ACT,
face to face and video session, Two person and individual
3 sessions,
90 min,
6 week
11,
58.0 (9.35),
91%
TAU Insomnia (ISI), sleep diary (SOL), (WASO (TST), Improvement of sleep quality, sleep delay, ISI severity were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, from the beginning up to week 6. 24
16 Westin, V. Z. 2011 [40] Sweden randomized controlled trial tinnitus 20,
53.5 (12.84),
64%
ACT,
Individual,
On average 8.37 sessions per person and maximum of 10 sessions,
1)20,
48.95 (14.5),
40%
2)22,
49.59 (11.86),
36%
1) tinnitus treatment therapy (TRT)
2)control
Insomnia (ISI) 6 month follow up Mean score for insomnia severity in the ACT intervention group decreased after treatment over 6-month, 18-month follow-up periods, and this was statistically significant. TRT intervention did not have a positive effect on improving sleep quality. 25
17 Wiklund, T. 2018 [41] Sweden randomized controlled trial chronic pain 81 ACT-bsm,
Groups,
7 session,
120
Minutes,
8 week
1)78,
2)73
1)Exercise
2) control
Insomnia (ISI) 6 and 12 month follow up The average insomnia score in ACT intervention decreased after treatment and the 6 months follow-up, which was not statistically significant. The 12-month follow-up also showed a decrease in the insomnia, which was statistically significant. The effect of exercise on improving sleep quality was also evident, which was significant. 25
18 Zakiei, A.
2019
[42]
Iran Single-arm Trial Plan Insomnia 4,
38.5 (10.37)
50%
ACT,
8 sessions,
Individual,8 week
DBAS,
SPA,
PSQI,
Sleep diary (TST,
SOL,
SE)
3 month follow up ACT improves sleep quality in people with insomnia. This situation was also observed during the follow-ups. 20
19 Zetterqvist, V. 2018 [43] Sweden clinical pilot study Chronic pain 16,
38.19
(14.13),
68.8%
ACT,
Group and sometimes individual
6 sessions and 1 sessions in the follow up,
120 min,
Insomnia (ISI),
Sleep diary((SE), (SOL), (WASO), (TST))
3 month follow up In general, the intervention has a direct effect on improving the insomnia severity and other parameters related to sleep quality. 23