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Table 4 Statistical data by evaluation criteria

From: The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on insomnia and sleep quality: A systematic review

Name intervention / control parameters Number of sessions, time for presenting sessions pre treatment post treatment month follow up, mean square statistical analysis df p F / W /β(SE) effect size / difference in change between groups
Herbert, M. S ACT /in person PSQI 8,
60 min
12.48 (0.49) 11.58 (0.52) 6 month, 11.78 (0.55) Samples T test _ _ _ difference in change pre-post, −0.21(− 1.63_1.20),
difference in change pre-follow up, − 0.14(− 1.69_1.42)
ACT/ tele health PSQI 8,
60 min
12.16 (0.50) 11.47 (0.61) 6 month, 11.59 (0.67) _ _ _
Khazaie, H. ACT PSQI 8,
60 min
15.58 (2.31) 5.17 (2.88) 3 month, 3.17 (2.03) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 1 0.001 F = 433.77 _
Simister, H. D ACT+TAU PSQI 7 12.67 (3.80) 10.24 (3.60) 10.70 (4.71) Linear mixed effects modeling (LMM) df1 = 2 0.055 _ d(pre-post) =0.79 (0.26–1.31)
TAU PSQI 7 13.26 (3.80) 13.00 (3.47) _   _ d(pre-follow up) = 0.53 (0.2–1.04)
Zakiei, A. ACT PSQI 8,
60 min
16 ± 2.44 5 ± 4 5 ± 4.08 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.01 _ Cohen’s d = 1.733
Päivi, L ACT ESS 6 6.85 (4.59) 5.67 (3.81) 5.20 (3.22) Wald test df = 1 0.001 W = 6.71 Cohen’s d (pre-post) = 0.41,
Cohen’s (pre-follow up) = 0.69
control ESS 7.60 (4.28) 7.30 (5.09) _ df = 2 <  0.001 W = 32.23
Wells-Di Gregorio, S. M. ACT ESS 3,
90 min
8.82 (1.11) 7.99 (1.24) _ linear mixed models _ 0.66 _ _
control ESS 8.09 (1.38) 7.91 (1.46) _ _ 0.66 _ _
Päivi, L ACT DBAS 6 96.33 (22.81) 86.57 (25.74) 77.47 (29.70) Wald test df = 1 0.001 W = 10.41 Cohen’s d (pre-post) = 0.53
control   87.93 (20.62) 89.55 (18.85) _ df = 2 <  0.001 W = 34.86 Cohen’s (pre-follow up) = 0.71
Zakiei, A. ACT DBAS 8,
60 min
92.75 ± 5.85 34.25 ± 16.64 3 month, 34.25 ± 14.63 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.05 _ Cohen’s d = 1.781
Mosher, C. E(2019) ACT PROMIS (sleep disturbance) 6,
50 mintes
10.56 (0.71) 10.24 (0.78) 10.04 (0.78) Linear mixed effeect model 74 0.69 F Value = 0.38 _
education support PROMIS 11.24 (0.71) 10.15 (0.81) 9.85 (0.81) ـ ـ ـ ـ
Mosher, C. E(2018) ACT PROMIS (Sleep-disturbance) 6,
50–60 min
13.39 (3.24) 12.86 (3.06) 12 (3.27) Linear mixed effeect model ـ 0.14 β = − 0.49 (0.33) d(pre-post) = −0.14
education support PROMIS 11.5 (2.67) 10.96 (2.54) 9.92 (3.23) ـ ـ ـ d(pre-follow up) = −0.43
Mosher, C. E(2018) ACT PROMIS (sleep related impairment) 6,
50–60 min
23.04 (7.42) 21.61 (5.24) 21.04 (6.55) Linear mixed effeect model ـ 0.88 β = 0.11 (0.72) d(pre-post) = − 0.27
education support PROMIS 18.79 (6.35) 18.79 (4.51) 19.12 (4.97) ـ ـ ـ d(pre-follow up) = −0.31
Clarke, S. P. ACT ICOAP 6,
90 min
5 (3–7) 4 (3–6) 3 (2–4) Mann-Whitney’s U test ـ P (pre-post) = 0.05 ـ ـ
control ICOAP 6 (4–7) 6 (5–8) 6 (5–7)   P (pre-follow up) = 0.002 ـ
Farhang, Maryam ACT GHQ 8,
75 min
12.27 (3.35) 7 (2.41) _ multivariate covariance analysis statistical test 1 0.001 F (pre) = 92.988 effect (pre) = 0.830
control GHQ 12.82 (4.64) 12.73 (3.95) _ ـ ـ F (post) = 81.154 effect (post) = 0.810
Päivi, L ACT BNSQ 6 21.77 (4.45) 19.91 (5.25) 18.35 (5.42) Wald test df = 1 0.001 W = 6.71 Cohen’s d (pre-post) = 0.42
control BNSQ 21.65 (4.07) 21.57 (4.5) _ df = 2 <  0.001 W = 32.23 Cohen’s (pre-follow up) = 0.69
Name intervention / control sleep diary Number of sessions, time for presenting sessions pre treatment post treatment follow up statistical analysis df p F effect size
Wells-Di Gregorio, S. M. ACT SOL (min) 3,
90 min
52.16 (10.43) 30.78 (5.87) _ linear mixed models ـ 0.028 ـ −0.86
Zakiei, A. ACT SOL 8,
60 min
1.52 (0.36) 0.96 (0.56) _ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ـ < 0.05 ـ 2.806
Zetterqvist, V. ACT SOL (min) 7,
120 min
59 (0:39) 20 (0:10) 25 (0:17) linear mixed effects models _ _ _ g(pre-post) = 1.33(.25, 2.41), g (pre-follow up) = 1.08(−0.15, 2.32)
Wells-Di Gregorio, S. M. ACT SE 3,
90 min
0.80 (0.027) 0.9 (0.019) _ linear mixed models _ 0.0062 _ d = 1.08
Zakiei, A. ACT SE 8,
60 min
51.31 (10.6) 79.61 (10.77) _ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.05 _ d = 2.28
Zetterqvist, V. ACT SE 7,
120 min
68.8 (13.9) 85.8 (6.5) 86.8 (6.7) linear mixed effects models _ _ _ g(pre-post) = −1.57(−2.63,-0.47), g (pre-follow up) = −1.58(−2.90,-0.26)
Zakiei, A. ACT TST 8,
60 min
4:17 (1:26) 6:03 (0:82) _ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.05 _ d = 3.37
Zetterqvist, V. ACT TST 7,
120 min
5:46 (1:54) 5:56 (1:17) 6:43 (1:26) linear mixed effects models _ _ _ g(pre-post) = −0.10(−1.07, 0.87), g (pre-follow up) = − 0.54(− 1.71, 0.63)
Zakiei, A. ACT number of awakenings 8,
60 min
1.82 (0.29) 1.32 (1.76) _ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.05 _ d = 1.76
Zakiei, A. ACT subjective quality 8,
60 min
4.07 (1.40) 5.67 (1.83) _ Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) _ < 0.05 _ d = 3.054
Zetterqvist, V. ACT WASO 7,
120 min
0:46 (0:32) 0:23 (0:33) 0:22 (0:19) linear mixed effects models _ _ _ g(pre-post) = −0.69(−0.31, 1.69), g (pre-follow up) = − 0.87(− 0.33, 2.08)