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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics for 1,571 patients by age groups

From: Traumatic brain injury—the effects of patient age on treatment intensity and mortality

  15-24yrs 25-34yrs 35-44yrs 45-54yrs 55-64yrs 65-74yrs 75-84yrs  ≥ 85yrs
Count (n, %) 179 (100) 168 (100) 153 (100) 197 (100) 258 (100) 297 (100) 197 (100) 122 (100)
Male sex (n, %) 134 (74.9) 134 (79.8) 125 (81.7) 145 (73.6) 195 (75.6) 201 (67.7) 112 (56.9) 46 (37.7)
Pre-injury ASA-score (n, %)
 1 165 (92.2) 134 (79.8) 102 (66.7) 114 (57.9) 72 (27.9) 66 (22.2) 18 (9.1) 4 (3.3)
 2 11 (6.1) 26 (15.5) 31 (20.3) 45 (22.8) 88 (34.1) 127 (42.8) 86 (43.7) 30 (24.6)
 3 3 (1.7) 7 (4.2) 20 (13.1) 38 (19.3) 97 (37.6) 97 (32.7) 91 (46.2) 85 (69.7)
 4 0 (0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.4) 7 (2.4) 2 (1.0) 3 (2.5)
Pre-injury living (n, %)
 Independent 176 (98.3) 162 (96.4) 147 (96.1) 185 (93.9) 236 (91.5) 269 (90.6) 155 (78.7) 51 (41.8)
 Home with assistance 1 (0.6) 5 (3.0) 4 (2.6) 8 (4.1) 20 (7.8) 22 (7.4) 29 (14.7) 54 (44.3)
 Institutionalised 2 (1.1) 1 (0.6) 2 (1.3) 4 (2.0) 2 (0.8) 6 (2.0) 13 (6.6) 17 (13.9)
Pre-injury antithrombotics (n, %)
 Anticoagulation 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 5 (3.3) 2 (1.0) 14 (5.4) 33 (11.1) 52 (26.4) 38 (31.1)
 Platelet inhibitor 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 10 (5.1) 38 (14.7) 87 (29.3) 68 (34.5) 45 (36.9)
 Platelet inhibitor + anticoagulation 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 1 (0.5) 3 (1.2) 7 (2.4) 7 (3.6) 2 (1.6)
GCS (mean) 10.0 11.0 11.1 11.0 11.2 11.8 11.4 12.5
HISS (n, %)
 Mild 62 (34.6) 83 (49.4) 68 (44.4) 81 (41.1) 111 (43.0) 134 (45.1) 94 (47.7) 73 (59.8)
 Moderate 50 (27.9) 32 (19.0) 41 (26.8) 58 (29.4) 74 (28.7) 100 (33.7) 50 (25.4) 32 (26.2)
 Severe 67 (37.4) 53 (31.5) 44 (28.8) 58 (29.4) 73 (28.3) 63 (21.2) 53 (26.9) 17 (13.9)
Pathoanatomy (n, %)
 Skull fracture 121 (67.6) 107 (63.7) 95 (62.1) 125 (63.5) 135 (52.3) 133 (44.8) 56 (28.4) 36 (29.5)
 SDH 72 (40.2) 73 (43.5) 65 (42.5) 109 (55.3) 169 (65.5) 192 (64.6) 133 (67.5) 77 (63.1)
 tSAH 80 (44.7) 104 (61.9) 93 (60.8) 116 (58.9) 170 (65.9) 189 (63.6) 118 (59.9) 72 (59.0)
 EDH 47 (26.3) 35 (20.8) 34 (22.2) 36 (18.3) 33 (12.8) 28 (9.4) 9 (4.6) 5 (4.1)
 Brain contusion 100 (55.8) 82 (48.8) 82 (53.6) 102 (51.8) 138 (53.5) 137 (46.1) 87 (44.2) 48 (39.3)
Rotterdam CT score (n, %)
 1,2 103 (57.5) 82 (48.8) 60 (39.2) 76 (38.6) 83 (32.2) 89 (30.0) 44 (22.3) 38 (31.1)
 3,4 66 (36.9) 67 (39.9) 80 (52.3) 101 (51.3) 152 (58.9) 182 (61.3) 132 (67.0) 73 (59.8)
 5,6 10 (5.6) 19 (11.3) 13 (8.5) 20 (10.2) 23 (8.9) 26 (8.8) 21 (10.7) 11 (9.0)
Multiple trauma (n, %)
 Yes 101 (56.4) 94 (56.0) 78 (51.0) 122 (61.9) 134 (51.9) 127 (42.8) 76 (38.6) 40 (32.8)
 No 78 (43.6) 74 (44.0) 75 (49.0) 75 (38.1) 124 (48.1) 170 (57.2) 121 (61.4) 82 (67.2)
Management intensity (n, %)
 TTA 165 (92.2) 140 (83.3) 129 (84.3) 167 (84.8) 214 (82.9) 205 (69.0) 127 (64.5) 69 (56.6)
 CTA/CTV/MRA/MRV 112 (62.6) 97 (57.7) 84 (54.9) 123 (62.4) 164 (63.6) 163 (54.9) 84 (42.6) 21 (17.2)
 MR 90 (50.3) 52 (31.0) 52 (34.0) 69 (35.0) 75 (29.1) 50 (16.8) 21 (10.7) 4 (3.3)
 Ventilator therapy 97 (54.2) 69 (41.1) 65 (42.5) 89 (45.2) 119 (46.1) 112 (37.7) 69 (35.0) 22 (18.0)
 ICP-monitor 62 (34.6) 40 (23.8) 42 (27.5) 59 (29.9) 81 (31.4) 59 (19.9) 27 (13.7) 3 (2.5)
 Evacuation of mass lesion 18 (10.1) 22 (13.1) 27 (17.6) 27 (13.7) 43 (16.7) 49 (16.5) 20 (10.2) 10 (8.2)
 Decompressive craniectomy 4 (2.2) 4 (2.4) 6 (3.9) 9 (4.6) 4 (1.6) 4 (1.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, LOC Loss of consciousness, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, HISS Head Injury Severity Scale, SDH Subdural haematoma, tSAH Traumatic subarachnoidal haemorrhage, EDH Epidural haematoma, TTA Trauma team activation, CTA Computed tomography angiography, CTV Computed tomography venography, MRA Magnetic resonance angiography, MRV Magnetic resonance venography, MR Magnetic resonance, ICP Intracranial pressure monitor