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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients under GA and CS

From: Effect of anesthesia strategy during endovascular therapy on 90-day outcomes in acute basilar artery occlusion: a retrospective observational study

Variable name Overall (n = 178) GA (n = 139) CS (n = 39) P
Demographic data
 Age, mean (SD), years 60 (10) 60 (10) 60 (11) 0.96
 Male sex 150 (84.3) 121 (87.1) 29 (74.4) 0.05
Vascular risk factors
 Hypertension 125 (70.2) 99 (71.2) 26 (66.7) 0.58
 Diabetes mellitus 50 (28.1) 41 (29.5) 9 (23.1) 0.43
 Dyslipidemia 29 (16.3) 26 (18.7) 3 (7.7) 0.14
 Coronary heart disease 21 (11.8) 16 (11.5) 5 (12.8) 0.78
 Previous ischemic stroke 36 (20.2) 24 (17.3) 12 (30.8) 0.07
 Current smoking 66 (37.1) 52(37.4) 14 (35.9) 0.86
Clinical characteristics
 Mode of stroke onset     0.08
  Acute 88 (49.4) 67 (48.2) 21(53.8)  
  Progressive 82 (46.1) 68 (48.9) 14 (35.9)  
 Fluctuating 8 (4.5) 4 (2.9) 4 (10.3)  
 Pre-procedural SBP, mean (SD),mmHg 160(25) 160(26) 160 (24) 0.86
 Post-procedural SBP, mean (SD),mmHg 144 (21) 143 (22) 146 (19) 0.57
 NIHSS score, median (IQR) 20.5 (10–33) 22 (11–35) 16(6–30) 0.04
 mRS before stroke, median (IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.30
 WBCs, mean (SD), ×1 09 10.8 (3.8) 11.0 (3.7) 10.3 (4.0) 0.29
 Blood glucose, mean (SD), mmol/L 8.8 (3.5) 8.6 (3.2) 9.8 (4.4) 0.05
 Creatinine, mean (SD), umol/L 70.0 (21.7) 71.5 (20.7) 64.8 (24.7) 0.10
 pc-ASPECTS on DWI, median (IQR) 6 (5–8) 7 (5–8) 6 (4–8) 0.81
 PMI on DWI, median (IQR) 2 (0–4) 2 (0.25–4) 2 (0–3) 0.58
 Occlusion site     0.99
  Proximal BA 100 (56.2) 78 (56.1) 22 (56.4)  
  Middle BA 51 (28.7) 40 (28.8) 11 (28.2)  
  Distal BA 27 (15.2) 21 (15.1) 6 (15.4)  
 Tandem lesion 24 (13.5) 17 (12.2) 7 (17.9) 0.36
 Underlying ICAS 111 (62.4) 89 (64.0) 22 (56.4) 0.39
 ASITN/SIR collateral system     0.68
  Grade 0–1 76 (42.7) 61 (43.9) 15 (38.5)  
  Grade 2 81 (45.5) 63 (45.3) 18 (46.2)  
  Grade 3–4 21 (11.8) 15 (10.8) 6 (15.4)  
 Stroke subtype by TOAST criteria     0.82
  Large artery arteriosclerosis 143 (80.3) 112 (80.6) 31 (79.5)  
  Cardioembolic 28 (15.7) 21 (15.1) 7 (17.9)  
  Other or unknown etiology 7 (3.9) 6 (4.3) 1 (2.6)  
Procedural features
 Prior use of intravenous tPA 35 (19.7) 26 (18.7) 9 (23.1) 0.54
 Use of Solitaire retriever 130 (73.0) 110 (79.1) 20 (51.3) < 0.01
 No. of passes, median (IQR) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 0.44
 Intra-arterial tPA or Urokinase 40(22.5) 29 (20.9) 11 (28.2) 0.33
 Infusion of Tirofiban 123 (69.1) 102 (73.4) 21 (53.8) 0.02
 Heparinization 76 (42.7) 60 (43.2) 16 (41.0) 0.81
 Angioplasty     < 0.01
  No 57 (32.0) 36 (25.9) 21 (53.8)  
  Balloon alone 31 (17.4) 25 (18.0) 6 (15.4)  
  stenting 90 (50.6) 78 (56.1) 12 (30.8)  
 OTP, median (IQR), hours 7 (5–10) 7 (5–10) 7 (5–13) 0.71
 PTR, median (IQR), hours 1(0.5–2) 1(0.5–2) 1(0.5–2) 0.34
 Anesthesia time (IQR), hours 1.5 (1–2) 1.5 (1–2) 1 (1–2) 0.01
 Successful recanaliation (mTICI 2b-3) 151 (84.8) 118 (84.9) 33 (84.6) 0.97
  1. Values are numbers with percentages in parentheses, unless indicated otherwise
  2. GA indicates general anesthesia, CS conscious sedation, SD standard deviation, SBP systolic blood pressure, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, mRS modified Rankin Scale, WBC white blood cell, IQR interquartile range, pc-ASPECTS posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score, DWI diffusion weighted imaging, PMI Pons-Midbrain Index, BA basilar artery, ICAS intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, ASITN/SIR American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology, TOAST Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment, tPA tissue plasminogen activator, OTP onset-to-puncture time, PTR puncture to recanalization time, mTICI modified Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction scale