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Table 3 Percussion exercises. For each percussion exercise, the movements involved, and the rhytmic pattern and tempo that can be asked to the participant is presented

From: Enriched Music-supported Therapy for chronic stroke patients: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Instrument Movement Rhythmic patterns Tempo
Tambourine with beater Shoulder flexion/extension (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3 30
Shoulder internal/external rotation and elbow flexion/extension (elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 40
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Tambourine Shoulder abduction/adduction (elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3 30
Shoulder abduction/adduction (elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3 30
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Maracas Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 50
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Güiro Elbow flexion/extension (no gravity) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Rainstick* Forearm supination/pronation (shoulder at 90° and elbow at 0°)
Egg Shaker Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 50
Elbow flexion/extension (no gravity) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60
Castanets Fingers mass flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 60, 70
Djembe Wrist flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 60, 70
Elbow flexion/extension (shoulder at 0° and elbow at 90°) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 50