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Fig. 2 | BMC Neurology

Fig. 2

From: Cerebral arterial air embolism secondary to iatrogenic left atrial-esophageal fistula: a case report

Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of atrial-esophageal fistula formation and consequent pathogenetic conditions. a Histological section diagram shows the distance between the left atrial wall and the esophageal wall, which can be as small as 5 mm. b Thermal injury to the atrial esophageal junction is produced during the ablation procedure. This leads to esophageal injury and atrial-esophageal fistula formation. c The air and bacteria in the esophagus can be introduced through the fistula to the arterial circulation. d The blood is lost from the left atrium to the esophagus through the fistula

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