Skip to main content

Table 3 Measures

From: Pain reduction by inducing sensory-motor adaptation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS PRISMA): protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Measurement domain Measurement tool Time points Research questiona/justification for use
Self-report measures
 Pain and symptom interference Current pain intensity (Item 6 of the Brief Pain Inventory) Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31 RQ1, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline pain
Brief Pain Inventoryb (BPI; short form; pain intensity and interference) [42] RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Pain Detect Questionnaire [43] RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Average pain intensity (Logbook) Weeks 1 to 11 (daily) RQ2, RQ3
Average symptom interference (Logbook) RQ2, RQ3
 Physical functioning Average range of movement (Logbook) Weeks 1 to 11 (daily) RQ2, RQ3
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (current and change) [44] Week 1 RQ4, RQ5; participant characteristics
 Body representation Bath CRPS Body Perception Disturbance Scale (BPDS) [45] Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Emotional functioning Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobiab [46] Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline fear of movement
Profile of Mood States [47] RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline mood disturbance
Revised Life Orientation Test [48] Week 1 RQ4; group matching on baseline levels of optimism
 Treatment expectations Patient-Centred Outcomes Questionnaire [49] Week 1 RQ4; group matching on expectations of treatment outcomes
 Impression of treatment outcome Patient’s Global Impression of Change [50] Weeks 7, 11, 19 & 31 RQ2, RQ3
 Treatment adherence Treatment sessions (Logbook) Weeks 4 to 6 (twice-daily) Monitoring treatment adherence
Clinical assessments
 CRPS diagnosis Budapest diagnostic research criteria assessment [51] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 Verification of CRPS diagnosis and assessment of eligibility
 Symptom severity CRPS severity score [52] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ1, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline symptom severity
 Autonomic functions Limb temperature asymmetry Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Oedema
 Motor functions Grip strength Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Δ Finger-To-Palm distance (ΔFTP)
 Sensory functions Mechanical Detection Threshold (MDT) Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Mechanical Pain Threshold (MPT)
Mechanical Allodynia
Two-Point Discrimination [53]
Computer-based tests of neuropsychological changes
 Visuospatial attention Visual Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task [8] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Landmark task [54]
Greyscales task [55]
 Mental representation of space Mental Number Line Bisection task [56] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Spatially-defined motor function Directional Hypokinesia task [57] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Body representation Hand Laterality Recognition task [58] Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11 RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
  1. aRQ1, effects of treatment on the primary outcome measures; RQ2, effects of treatment on the secondary outcome measures; RQ3, time course / duration of any changes; RQ4, predictors of CRPS progression over time and/or response to treatment; RQ5, baseline abnormalities in neuropsychological functions in participants with CRPS compared to pain-free controls, and their relationships with clinical signs of CRPS (only Week 1 data)
  2. bBrief Pain Inventory interference subscale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia are also considered proxy measures of physical functioning