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Table 3 Measures

From: Pain reduction by inducing sensory-motor adaptation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS PRISMA): protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Measurement domainMeasurement toolTime pointsResearch questiona/justification for use
Self-report measures
 Pain and symptom interferenceCurrent pain intensity (Item 6 of the Brief Pain Inventory)Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31RQ1, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline pain
Brief Pain Inventoryb (BPI; short form; pain intensity and interference) [42]RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Pain Detect Questionnaire [43]RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Average pain intensity (Logbook)Weeks 1 to 11 (daily)RQ2, RQ3
Average symptom interference (Logbook)RQ2, RQ3
 Physical functioningAverage range of movement (Logbook)Weeks 1 to 11 (daily)RQ2, RQ3
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (current and change) [44]Week 1RQ4, RQ5; participant characteristics
 Body representationBath CRPS Body Perception Disturbance Scale (BPDS) [45]Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Emotional functioningTampa Scale for Kinesiophobiab [46]Weeks 1, 4, 7, 11, 19 & 31RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline fear of movement
Profile of Mood States [47]RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline mood disturbance
Revised Life Orientation Test [48]Week 1RQ4; group matching on baseline levels of optimism
 Treatment expectationsPatient-Centred Outcomes Questionnaire [49]Week 1RQ4; group matching on expectations of treatment outcomes
 Impression of treatment outcomePatient’s Global Impression of Change [50]Weeks 7, 11, 19 & 31RQ2, RQ3
 Treatment adherenceTreatment sessions (Logbook)Weeks 4 to 6 (twice-daily)Monitoring treatment adherence
Clinical assessments
 CRPS diagnosisBudapest diagnostic research criteria assessment [51]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11Verification of CRPS diagnosis and assessment of eligibility
 Symptom severityCRPS severity score [52]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ1, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5; group matching on baseline symptom severity
 Autonomic functionsLimb temperature asymmetryWeeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Oedema
 Motor functionsGrip strengthWeeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Δ Finger-To-Palm distance (ΔFTP)
 Sensory functionsMechanical Detection Threshold (MDT)Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Mechanical Pain Threshold (MPT)
Mechanical Allodynia
Two-Point Discrimination [53]
Computer-based tests of neuropsychological changes
 Visuospatial attentionVisual Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task [8]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
Landmark task [54]
Greyscales task [55]
 Mental representation of spaceMental Number Line Bisection task [56]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Spatially-defined motor functionDirectional Hypokinesia task [57]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
 Body representationHand Laterality Recognition task [58]Weeks 1, 4, 7 & 11RQ2, RQ3, RQ4, RQ5
  1. aRQ1, effects of treatment on the primary outcome measures; RQ2, effects of treatment on the secondary outcome measures; RQ3, time course / duration of any changes; RQ4, predictors of CRPS progression over time and/or response to treatment; RQ5, baseline abnormalities in neuropsychological functions in participants with CRPS compared to pain-free controls, and their relationships with clinical signs of CRPS (only Week 1 data)
  2. bBrief Pain Inventory interference subscale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia are also considered proxy measures of physical functioning