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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Use of analgesics in acute stroke patients with inability to self-report pain: a retrospective cohort study

 ACP-NACS-NACC-NACp-value
Number of patients, n (%)746 (82.1)25 (2.8)90 (9.9)48 (5.3) 
Demographics
age, years, mean (SD)70.46 (15.55)79.6 (10.94)77.4 (12.56)78.27(13.59)< 0.001abc
sex, male, n (%)427 (57.2)14 (56.0)50 (55.6)16 (33.3)0.015cf
living circumstances prior to index stroke< 0.001abcde
 independent at home, n (%)669 (90.0)5 (20.0)53 (60.2)29 (60.4) 
 family care, n (%)51 (6.9)9 (36.0)19 (21.6)9 (18.8) 
 institutional care, n (%)23 (3.1)11 (44.0)16 (18.2)10 (20.8) 
premorbid mRS score >/= 3, n (%)92 (12.4)20 (80.0)26 (29.5)18 (38.3)< 0.001abcde
Vascular risk factors
atrial fibrillation168 (22.5)16 (64.0)50 (55.6)24 (50.0)< 0.001abc
hypertension, n (%)612 (82.0)21 (84.0)83 (92.2)44 (91.7)0.03b
diabetes mellitus, n (%)205 (27.5)11 (44.0)26 (28.9)11 (22.9)n.s.
dyslipidemia, n (%)285 (38.2)9 (36.0)29 (32.2)15 (31.3)n.s.
coronary heart disease, n (%)166 (22.3)9 (36.0)34 (37.8)11 (22.9)0.006b
prior myocardial infarction, n (%)87 (11.7)1 (4.0)17 (18.9)7 (14.6)n.s.
prior stroke, n (%)175 (23.5)11 (44.0)27 (30.0)18 (37.5)0.013ac
current or past smoker, n (%)197 (26.4)4 (16.0)10 (11.1)3 (6.3)< 0.001bc
Comorbidities
Dementia, n (%)58 (7.8)21 (84.0)20 (22.2)7 (14.6)< 0.001abde
Depression, n (%)63 (8.4)6 (24.0)9 (10.0)6 (12.5)n.s.
Cancer, n (%)33 (4.4)1 (4.0)9 (10.0)0 (0.0)0.049bf
Index stroke
Ischemia, n (%)621 (83.2)23 (92.0)77 (85.6)38 (79.2) 
Intracerebral hemorrhage, n (%)50 (6.7)1 (4.0)13 (14.4)10 (20.8) 
TIA, n (%)75 (10.1)1 (4.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0) 
NIHSS at admission, median (IQR)3 (5)10 (12)17.5 (12)23 (8)< 0.001abcef
 severe aphasia, n (%)67 (9.0)10 (40.0)67 (74.4)28 (59.6)< 0.001abcd
 severe dysarthria, n (%)51 (6.8)9 (36.0)39 (43.3)24 (50.0)< 0.001abc
GCS < 12 at admission, n (%)2 (0.3)1 (4.0)7 (7.8)18 (37.5)< 0.001bcef
Length of hospital stay, days, mean (SD)11.2 (6.6)10.6 (6.9)13.3 (8.3)9.2 (7.7)< 0.001bcf
In-hospital death, n (%)1 (0.1)5 (20.0)10 (11.1)37 (77.1)< 0.001abcdef
  1. a, significant group difference AC vs P-NAC
  2. b, significant group difference AC vs S-NAC
  3. c, significant group difference AC vs C-NAC
  4. d, significant group difference P-NAC vs S-NAC
  5. e, significant group difference P-NAC vs C-NAC
  6. f, significant group difference S-NAC vs C-NAC