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Table 2 Assessment of pain and use of analgesics

From: Use of analgesics in acute stroke patients with inability to self-report pain: a retrospective cohort study

 ACP-NACS-NACp-value
Number of patients, n (%)746 (86.6)25 (2.9)90 (10.5) 
Assessment of pain
 Any, n (%), documented by nurses741 (99.5)25 (100.0)89 (98.9)n.s.
 Any, n (%), documented by physicians161 (21.6)13 (52.0)57 (63.3)< 0.001ab
 NRS, n (%)738 (99.1)25 (100.0)85 (94.4)< 0.012b
 NRS, frequency, n per day (SD)2.44 (1.10)2.02 (1.33)1.68 (0.96)n.s.
Pain prevalence
 Total, n (%)353 (47.3)11 (44.0)38 (42.2)n.s.
 Headache, n (%)188 (25.2)4 (16.0)10 (11.1)0.008b
 Musculoskeletal pain, n (%)82 (11.0)1 (4.0)13 (14.4)n.s.
 Chronic pain syndrome, n (%)36 (4.8)0 (0.0)1 (1.1)n.s.
 Not specified, n (%)199 (26.7)7 (28.0)26 (28.9)n.s.
Use of analgesics
 Any analgesic, n (%)363 (48.7)19 (76.0)70 (77.8)< 0.001ab
 Opioid, n (%)54 (7.2)5 (20.0)16 (17.8)0.001ab
 Non-Opioid, n (%)278 (37.3)11 (44.0)56 (62.2)< 0.001b
 Co-analgesic, n (%)165 (22.1)13 (52.0)21 (23.3)0.002ac
Indication
 Acute or chronic pain, n (%)245 (32.8)3 (12.0)22 (24.4)0.029a
 Prophylactic treatment, n (%)3 (0.4)5 (20.0)13 (14.4)< 0.001ab
 Not documented, n (%)64 (8.6)5 (20.0)18 (20.0)0.001b
 Other, n (%)148 (19.8)15 (60.0)43 (47.8)0.000ab
Documented response to treatment, n/n (%)120/245 (49.0)1/3 (33.3)2/22 (9.1)< 0.001b
  1. a, significant group difference AC vs P-NAC
  2. b, significant group difference AC vs S-NAC
  3. c, significant group difference P-NAC vs S-NAC