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Table 2 Univariate analysis to identify risk factors associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

From: Association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

Characteristic Total patients (n = 2043) With HT (n = 232) Without HT (n = 1811) P-value
Age (Mean ± SD), years 65 ± 14 68 ± 14 64 ± 14 < 0.001a
Males, n (%) 1290 (63.1%) 113 (48.7%) 1177 (65.0%) < 0.001b
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension, n (%) 1132 (55.4%) 115 (49.5%) 1017 (56.2%) 0.864b
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 467 (22.9%) 52 (22.4%) 415 (22.9%) 0.528b
 Hyperlipidaemia, n (%) 75 (3.7%) 7 (3.0%) 68 (3.8%) 0.574b
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 235 (11.5%) 69 (29.7%) 166 (9.2%) < 0.001b
Smoking, n (%) 864 (42.3%) 83 (35.8%) 781 (43.1%) 0.033b
Alcohol consumption, n (%) 560 (27.4%) 51 (22.0%) 509 (28.1%) 0.049b
TOAST classification
 Large-artery atherosclerosis, n (%) 671 (32.8%) 73 (31.5%) 598 (33.0%) < 0.001b
 Small-artery occlusion, n (%) 484 (23.7%) 4 (1.7%) 480 (26.5%)  
 Cardioembolic, n (%) 434 (21.2%) 111 (47.8%) 323 (17.8%)  
 Undetermined aetiology, n (%) 386 (18.9%) 40 (16.1%) 346 (19.3%)  
 Other aetiology, n (%) 68 (3.3%) 4 (1.7%) 64 (3.5%)  
NIHSS on admission, median (IQR) 5 (2–10) 11(6–18) 5 (2–10) < 0.001c
SBP, (Mean ± SD), mmHg 146 ± 23 140 ± 23 146 ± 23 < 0.001a
DBP, (Mean ± SD), mmHg 85 ± 15 84 ± 16 86 ± 15 0.048a
Glucose, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 7.97 ± 3.45 8.16 ± 2.52 7.94 ± 3.55 0.233a
Thrombolysis, n (%) 107 (5.2%) 27 (11.6%) 80 (4.4%) < 0.001b
Thrombectomy, n (%) 102 (5.0%) 24 (10.3%) 78 (4.3%) < 0.001b
Lipid profile
 TG, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 1.68 ± 1.32 1.37 ± 1.01 1.72 ± 1.35 < 0.001a
 TC, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 4.38 ± 1.13 4.18 ± 1.11 4.41 ± 1.14 0.003a
 HDL-C, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 1.24 ± 0.37 1.32 ± 0.44 1.23 ± 0.36 0.005a
 LDL-C, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 2.64 ± 0.95 2.44 ± 0.86 2.66 ± 0.95 < 0.001a
 Non-HDL-C, (Mean ± SD), mmol/L 3.14 ± 1.11 2.86 ± 1.05 3.18 ± 1.11 < 0.001a
  1. Abbreviations; NHISS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, TG Triglyceride, TC Total cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Non-HDL-C Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. a Student’s t test
  3. b Chi-squared test
  4. c Mann-Whitney Test