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Table 1 Included study data extraction

From: Mindfulness for pain, depression, anxiety, and quality of life in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review

StudyNSample CharacteristicsResearch DesignTheoretical FrameworkIntervention Modality/ Length and ComparatorMindfulness ComponentsOutcome MeasuresNumber of Withdrawals/ Dropouts & ReasonsResults (p values, effect sizes, and 95% CIs where available)
Curtis et al. (2015)11Age (M & SD): 48.4 (15)
Gender: 90.9% female
Ethnicity: not reported
Time since injury: M = 157.4 months
Etiology of injury: six traumatic injuries, three non-traumatic, two not reported
Status: five inpatients, six community-dwelling
Pretest-posttest of an eight-week modified yoga programmeNot reportedModified eight-week yoga programme: one 45–60 min class per week.
No comparator.
Brief (5–10 min) mindfulness meditations focusing on breathing and present moment awareness per class-Yoga Satisfaction Scale
-Toronto Mindfulness Scale
-Brief Pain Inventory Short-Form
-Pain Catastrophising Scale
-Fatigue Severity Scale
-Positive and Negative Affect Scale
-Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale
6, did not complete course.No significant changes in depression, pain and pain interference, pain catastrophising, or mindfulness (p > .05)
Curtis et al. (2017)23Age (M & SD): Yoga group 47.9 (19.51), control group 54.8 (10.11)
Gender: not reported
Ethnicity: Yoga group 30% Caucasian, 40% south Asian, 10% African-Canadian, 10% east Asian, 10% hispanic. Control group 83.3% Caucasian, 8.3% east Asian, 8.3% other.
Time since injury: not reported
Etiology of injury: Yoga group seven traumatic injuries, three non-traumatic. Control group 8 traumatic, four non-traumatic
Status: not reported
Randomised controlled trialNot reportedYoga: Two 50- to 60-min classes per week (approx. 12 h total) for six weeks.
Control: wait-list control.
10–15 min mindfulness meditations (breath awareness) per class-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire
-Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
-General Self-Efficacy Scale
-Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory
-Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale
-Self-Compassion Scale
-Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire
-Brief Pain Inventory Short Form
-Pain Catastrophising Scale
5, withdrew for logistical or non-study-related and illness reasons (e.g., unable to provide a doctor’s note to confirm eligibility, moved away, vertigo).
10 of 11 participants completed the yoga intervention.
8 of 12 control participants completed study.
Intervention significantly reduced depression severity (p < 0.05) and improved FFMQ-SF – total scores (p = 0.09), FFMQ-SF – observing scores (p = 0.06), and FFMQ-SF – non-reactivity scores (p = 0.04).
No significant improvements seen in anxiety, pain and pain catastrophising (p >. 05).
Flores et al. (2018)2Age (M & SD): Participant 1 39 years, participant 2 31 years
Gender: 100% male
Ethnicity: not reported
Time since injury: two weeks
Etiology of injury: Both traumatic
Status: both inpatients
Case studyNot reportedVirtual reality enhanced Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Mindfulness Skills Training
No comparator
Participants listened to mindfulness recordings between 8 and 10 min in length whilst wearing virtual reality goggles showing the illusion of floating down a 3D computer-generated river-Beck Depression Inventory Fast Screen
-The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
-Graphic Rating Scale (to measure sadness, fear, anger, guilt, shame, disgust, and joy, and acute stress disorder/PTSD)
None.No statistical analysis run.
Participant 1 underwent intervention four times: on day one, depression scores reduced from 8 to 6 out of 10 on a numerical rating scale after intervention. Anxiety reduced from 8 to 6 out of 10 after intervention.
Participant 2 underwent intervention twice: on day one, ratings of depression fell from 6 to 5 out of 10 after intervention. Feeling anxious dropped from 7 to 6 out of 10 post-intervention.
Hearn & Finlay (2018)67Age (M & SD): Mindfulness group 43.8 (8.7), control group 45.2 (12.2)
Gender: Mindfulness group 53% female, control group 55% female
Ethnicity: Mindfulness group 78% white British, control group 74% white British
Time since injury: Mindfulness group 14% 1–2 years, 62% between 2 and 8 years, 24% 8+ years, control group 19% 1–2 years, 49% between 2 and 8 years, 32% 8+ years
Etiology of injury: Mindfulness group 83% traumatic, 17% non-traumatic, control group 66% traumatic, 19% nontraumatic, 16% did not disclose
Status: community dwelling
Randomised controlled trialExperiential avoidance and behavioural flexibilityIntervention: eight-week online mindfulness training course delivered via two ten-minute mindfulness meditations per day, on six of seven days per week.
Control: weekly psychoeducational content delivered via email once per week for eight weeks.
Body scanning, breath awareness, mindful movement, acceptance and self-compassion meditations, kindness to others meditations-Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
-World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF
-Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire
-Pain Catastrophising Scale
-Pain intensity and unpleasantness (0–10 numerical rating scale)
10 discontinued mindfulness, 5 discontinued psychoeducation.
9 lost to follow-up.
Reasons for drop out not reported.
At course completion: significant improvements in depression severity (p = .002, partial eta squared (η2p) = .184, 95% CI [− 2.43, − 0.58]), anxiety severity (p = .009, η2p = .137, 95% CI [− 2.60, − 0.40]), pain unpleasantness (p = .009, η2p = .137, 95% CI [− 1.67, − 0.25]), and pain catastrophising (p = .02, η2p = .110, 95% CI [− 4.14, − 0.38])
At three-month follow-up: significant improvements in severity of depression (p = .001, η2p = 0.223, 95% CI [− 3.62, − 1.10]), anxiety (p = .023, η2p = 0.112, 95% CI [− 2.39, − 0.23]), and pain catastrophizing (p = .001, η2p = 0.239, 95% CI [− 5.75, − 1.80]).
Norrbrink Budh et al. (2006)38Age (M & SD): Intervention group 53.2 (12.6), control group 49.9 (12.3).
Gender: Intervention group 66.7% female, control group 54.4% female
Ethnicity: not reported
Time since injury: Intervention group 9.9 years (SD 12.8), control group 15.8 years (SD 9.3).
Etiology of injury: Intervention group 51.9% traumatic, 48.1% non-traumatic, control group 90.9% traumatic, 9.1% nontraumatic
Status: community dwelling
Parallel designNot reportedIntervention: two sessions per week for a ten-week cognitive behaviour driven programme.
Control: no intervention.
Mindfulness and body awareness training-Pain intensity and unpleasantness (CR10 scale and numerical and verbal rating scale)
-Quality of Sleep Questionnaire
-Nottingham Health Profile part 1 (QoL)
-Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
-Sense of Coherence Instrument
-Use of the healthcare system
None.No significant change in pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and quality of life.
Anxiety and depression decreased from baseline to the 12-month follow-up.
No statistical tests reported.