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Table 1 Clinical features, psychological and related-disability outcomes in patients with tension-type headache in the total sample and by symptomatic medication intake (n = 168)

From: Variables associated with use of symptomatic medication during a headache attack in individuals with tension-type headache: a European study

 Total sample (n = 168)Taking medication (n = 136)No taking medication (n = 32)
Clinical Pain Features
 Gender (male/female) n (%)45 (27%) / 123 (73%)36 (27%) / 100 (73%)9 (31%) / 23 (72%)
 FETTH / CTTH n (%)a94 (56%) / 74 (44%)82 (60%) / 54 (40%)12 (38%) / 20 (62%)
 Age (years)46 (44, 48)45 (42, 48)48 (43, 53)
 Headache history (years)10.5 (8.9, 12.1)10.8 (8.8, 12.8)10.2 (7.1, 13.3)
 Headache intensity (0–10)6.1 (5.7, 6.5)6.0 (5.4, 6.6)6.6 (5.8, 7.4)
 Headache frequency (days/month) a16.7 (12.5, 20.9)16.2 (14.0, 18.4)19.3 (17.8, 20.8)
 Headache duration (hours per attack)7.3 (6.6, 8.0)7.2 (6.4, 8.0)7.6 (6.0, 9.2)
 Prophylactic medication n (%)40 (25%)16 (12%)24 (75%)
Psychological and disability-related outcomes
 HADS-D (0–21) a8.4 (7.7, 9.1)7.5 (6.7, 8.3)9.5 (8.0, 11.0)
 HADS-A (0–21)10.7 (9.7, 11.7)10.7 (9.8, 11.6)10.6 (9.0, 12.2)
 HDI-P (0–48)23.0 (21.8, 24.2)22.5 (20.2, 24.8)23.2 (18,6, 27.8)
 HDI-E (0–52)19.7 (17.5, 21.9)18.0 (15.5, 20.5)22.2 (16.5, 27.9)
 STAI-T (0–60)23.9 (22.7, 25.1)23.8 (22.4, 25.2)24.2 (21.3, 27.3)
 STAI-S (0–60)21.8 (20.8, 22.8)21.6 (20.5, 22.7)22.2 (20.3, 24.1)
 PSQI (0–21)8.0 (7.2, 8.8.)8.2 (7.5, 8.9)7.8 (5.8, 9.8)
  1. Values are expressed as means (95% confidence interval); a Significant differences between groups (ANOVA, P < 0.025)
  2. FETTH Frequent episodic tension type headache; CTTH Chronic tension type headache; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (D Depression; A Anxiety), HDI Headache Disability Inventory (P Physical; E Emotional), STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T Trait; S State); PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index