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Table 3 Clinical features, psychological and related-disability outcomes in patients with tension-type headache depending on the self-reported perception of pain relief with medication (n = 136)

From: Variables associated with use of symptomatic medication during a headache attack in individuals with tension-type headache: a European study

 No Relief (n = 16)Moderate Relief (n = 81)Total Relief (n = 39)
Clinical Pain Features
 Gender (male/female) n (%)5 (31%) / 11 (69%)22 (27%) / 59 (73%)9 (23%) / 30 (77%)
 FETTH / CTTH n (%)a10 (62%) / 6 (38%)40 (49%) / 41 (51%)32 (82%) / 7 (18%)
 Age (years)44 (40, 48)47 (44, 52)46 (42, 50)
 Headache history (years) a13.5 (9.6, 17.4)9.8 (7.5, 12.1)4.2 (2.1, 6.3)
 Headache intensity (0–10)6.0 (5.5, 6.5)6.2 (5.8, 6.6)6.0 (5.5, 6.5)
 Headache frequency (days/) a18.2 (13.5, 22.9)19.0 (17.2, 20.8)11.8 (8.4, 15.2)
 Headache duration (hours per attack) a9.2 (7.2, 11.2)8.1 (7.1, 9.1)5.2 (4.0, 6.4)
Psychological and disability-related outcomes
 HADS-D (0–21)8.9 (5.7, 12.1)8.4 (7.4, 9.4)7.7 (6.4, 9.0)
 HADS-A (0–21)9.8 (6.7, 12.9)9.9 (8.9, 10.9)11.0 (9.7, 12.3)
 HDI-P (0–48)24.0 (20.7, 27.3)24.1 (21.2, 27.0)21.1 (17.1, 25.1)
 HDI-E (0–52) a26.6 (20.4, 32.8)20.8 (17.8, 23.8)14.7 (10.7, 18.7)
 STAI-T (0–60)23.1 (19.9, 26.3)23.8 (22.3, 25.3)24.4 (22.0, 26.8)
 STAI-S (0–60)20.8 (16.8, 24.8)21.5 (20.4, 22.6)22.4 (20.7, 24.1)
 PSQI (0–21)7.0 (5.2, 8.8)8.8 (7.8, 9.8)7.3 (6.1, 8.5)
  1. Values are expressed as means (95% confidence interval);
  2. a Significant differences between the total relief group and no or moderate relief group (ANOVA, P < 0.025)
  3. FETTH Frequent episodic tension type headache; CTTH Chronic tension type headache; HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (D Depression; A Anxiety), HDI Headache Disability Inventory (P Physical; E Emotional), STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T Trait; S State); PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index